In this article we will discuss about:- 1. Meaning of Reasoning 2. Definitions of Reasoning 3. Types.
Meaning of Reasoning:
It is one of the best forms of controlled thinking consciously towards the solution of a problem. It is realistic in the sense that the solution is sought always in reference to the reality of the situation. We can solve many problems in our day-dreams, dreams and imaginations but they are unrealistic solutions.
As Sherman defined, “reasoning is a process of thinking during which the individual is aware of a problem identifies, evaluates, and decides upon a solution”.
Reasoning is used not only when we want to solve an immediate problem but also when we anticipate future problems.
Reasoning plays a significant role in one’s adjustment to the environment. It not only determines one’s cognitive activities but also influences the behaviour and personality.
Definitions of Reasoning:
1. “Reasoning is a stepwise thinking with a purpose or goal in mind” —Garrett.
2. “Reasoning is the term applied to highly purposeful, controlled and selective thinking”—Gates.
3. “Reasoning is the word used to describe the mental recognition of cause and effect relationships, it may be the prediction of an event from an observed cause or the inference of a cause from an observed event”—Skinner.
Thus reasoning is a highly specialized thinking which helps an individual to explore mentally the cause and effect relationship of an event or solution of a problem by adopting some well-organized systematic steps based on previous experience combined with present observation.
Types of Reasoning:
Reasoning may be classified into two types.
1. Inductive reasoning:
It is a specialized thinking aimed at the discovery or construction of a generalized principle by making use of particular cases, special examples and identifying of elements or relations.
For example, Mohan is mortal, Radha is mortal, Karim is mortal; therefore, all human beings are mortal.
2. Deductive reasoning:
It is the ability to draw some logical conclusions from known statement or evidences. Here one starts with already known or established generalized statement or principle and applies it to specific cases. For example, all human beings are mortal you are a human being, therefore, you are mortal.
Henry has categorized three types of deductive reasoning:
i. Conditioned reasoning:
It is the reasoning tied down by some specific condition such as the following.
For example, if there is a solar eclipse, the street will be dork. There is a solar eclipse
... The streets are dark.
ii. Categorical reasoning:
This type of reasoning is based on some categorical statements.
For example, all Robins are birds.
All birds lay eggs.
... All Robins lay eggs.
iii. Linear reasoning:
This type of reasoning involves straight forward relationships among elements.
For example, If Ram is taller than Mohan and Mohan is taller than Sohan, Ram is the tallest.