There are several definitions of the term motivation. Different psychologists have emphasised different aspects of motivation. Several terms—motive, drive, need, instincts, curiosity, goal incentive and interest are used to explain the term motivation. It is considered psycho-physiological phenomenon. McClelland advocates that home environment, social philosophy and social norms and values are the significant factors which contribute a developing motivation.
Motivation energises the behaviour, releases the energy and arouses the activities. It also regulates the human behaviour. It is difficult to provide a comprehensive definition of the term motivation. Psychologists have developed several theories of motivation to explain and understand the nature of motivation.
Some important theories of motivation have been listed here:
Kurt Lewin considered psychology a science, closely related to everyday life, the pivot of Kurt Lewin psychology was in the motivating condition of a person’s—environment situation. Further-more he was extremely in democratic practice and principle, although the field psychology appliances all fields of psychology it is particularly useful in social-personality and educational psychology.
Kurt Lewin’s goal was to make the concept of field psychology of sufficient scope that applicable to all kind of behaviour and yet specific enough to permit representation of definite person in concert situation. He observed that S-R association psychology are based on statistical prediction may apply to the average of children or to the typical behaviour age group.
Kurt Lewin Field Psychology is more precisely called topological. Kurt Lewin has borrowed his idea and concepts in developing his psychology, from other sciences, physics and mathematics and geometry. Vector from physics, in using these related concept he added rigidly to the definite of mother science, but he constituents them in such a manner that they become most useful in the system of psychology.
2. Vector Analysis
The following terms are summarised the concept of field theory:
A consciously behaving self centre of ability and needs.
Status of a person which if he exists in relation to a goal, have a part in determining toward that goal, corresponds to tension, the inner system of person is the region of the person.
Everything in which a person can make psychological moment do anything about his person and environment are mutually dependent one another.
Foreign Hull of life space complex of non-psychological facts which surrounds a life space, that part of person’s physical environment particular environment which do not include in psychological environment, physical and social raw material, and foreign hill limits behaviour possibilities.
Theory of Vector Analysis:
Vector is a force which has got three characteristics:
2. Magnitude and
3. Point of application.
Attracting by an object and tends to region in life space. Positive or negative tends to away from region of life space. It means positive or negative unproductive environment fact properties that the organism tends to move towards the region or away from the region is termed as valences.
It refers to the relative position of respective region of a person temporarily continuous life space. There is locomotion between goal and power of application.
Which is very closed related psychological needs? The state of one system relative is stage of surrounding system.
It is a region of valence it is common region towards which face with in life space point. It is a region of life space to which a person is attractive psychological barrier.
Vector is the force or strength to act in certain direction.
It is the psychological situation of an individual between the person and goal.
Topology is the non-mechanical geometry of spaces. Geometrical figure in space is topology. Lewin tried to explain the topology of a person as structure of the person.
Level of Aspiration:
The level of future performance in a familiar task which as individual knowing his level of part performance in that task, explicitly undertakes to reach.
The difference between the level of the last performance and the level of the new goal is called goal discrepancy a person is striving for ideal goal to distinguish it from his action goal. It is determined by individual performance.
Risk Taking Behaviour:
Setting is too high, to hit the target is high risk taking behaviour. Setting is the moderate or low to hit the target is low risk taking behaviour.
Approach to Success:
To set his goal according his past performance a little length.
Approach the Failure:
To set the goal to high according to the past performance is to the failure.
McDougall has developed ‘Instincts theory’ in the beginning of the twentieth century. He was of this view that instincts are the spring of human behaviour.
McDougall has defined the term instinct:
Instincts as complex inherited tendencies common to all members of a species compelling each individual:
(i) To perceive and pay attention to certain objects and situation.
(ii) To experience positive and negative emotional excitement on perceiving them.
(iii) To act in a way which was likely in the long run to preserve the individual?
McDougall, James and Burt advocated the theory of instincts. The instincts are inborn and unlearned response tendencies which determine the behaviour of an individual.
Charles Drawing is of the opinion that the most fundamental instincts of human beings are inherited rather than acquired.
McDougall prepared a list of twelve original instincts which was extended to eighteen instincts or basic propensities such as:
(5) Submission, and
(6) Acquisitiveness, etc.
The instincts cause the occurrence of behaviour. McDougall proposed that every instinct is followed by specific emotional behaviour or disposition as fear with escape anger with pugnacity, etc.
Most of human behaviours are determined by sentiments, and all behaviours are purposive.
The theory of instincts was rejected by other psychologists on the basis of the following reasons:
1. Most of the human behaviours are acquired by learning and experiences.
2. Watson arranged on instincts—generally animals fight of an instinct of pugnacity. It is merely circular description of behaviour.
3. Each theorist of instinct psychology has prepared his own list of instincts to explain the behaviour. There is no final test of instincts. There are more than eight hundred instincts which were proposed in early twentieth century.
4. The human behaviour is modified and shaped by cultural factors in which a child lives. It has been advocated by social anthropologists, the human behaviour is not influenced by the instincts as proposed by theorists.
The psychologists have evolved the concept of drive as an explanation of human behaviour.
The following four meaning of the term drive have been enumerated:
1. Drive is the energy which moves the body.
2. It is a tendency of a human behaviour.
3. It is internal stimulus and internal tissue condition which release energy and directs to activity.
4. It is a specific goal directed activity of an individual.
Thus, the awareness of instincts and drive is essential to a teacher to make use of these concepts in organizing teaching in classroom and to motivate his students.
The theory of motivation was developed by social psychologists, Mc Clelland. John Atkinson and their associates during the mid of present century. The psychologists through that an individual psychology is greatly influenced by social, political and economic problems. The life philosophy and psychology decide the approach for solving the problems. McClelland holds the view that psychology of an individual and the nation can contribute to understand these problems.
He rejects the traditional explanation that economic growth may be interpreted in terms of economic variables. The sociological and psychological factors are major variables affecting economic growth, he believes that changes in the beliefs and attitude of persons gave impetus to economic growth in certain countries.
McClelland holds this view that human beings differ from one another with regard to the strength of achievement motive. The motivation to achieve contributes for economic growth of nations.
He defines the term motive:
“A red integration of change in a fact by a cue and anticipation of a future change in affect contingent upon certain actions.”
The term ‘red integration’ means reinstatement of psychological process in the conscious as a result of stimulation by an environment-event.
The two factor:
(a) Environmental cues events, and
(b) Affective aroused in the individual are important for motivation.
A number of variables in home or family school and society affects the achievement motive.
Parental guidance and expectation develop need for high achievement in life among children. The attitudes and motives are developed by home environment.
The social philosophy and norms of socially are the significant variables in developing achievement motive.
McClelland (1965) enumerated twelve propositions for developing new motives in human beings:
1. Education attempts develop a new motive will best succeed when the individual has many reasons in advance to believe that he can, will or should develop a motive.
2. Educational attempts will be best succeed when the individual understands that developing the new motive is realistic and reasonable.
3. The individual is likely to develop the motive when he can describe and clearly conceive the various aspects of the motive.
4. Change in thought and action will most likely occur and endure when the individual can link the motive to related actions.
5. The new motive is most likely to influence the thoughts and actions of the individual when he can link it to events in his everyday life.
Fredrick Herz berg (1&66) has formulated a new theory of motivation. It has presented for industry and trade but it has influenced the teaching-learning activities. The teacher can use effectively the hygiene factors in this teaching. The hygiene theory is very helpful in organizing teaching activities and creates appropriate situation for motivating the students-activities. According to Maslow, Herzberg has also explained the ‘Need of Theory’.
He classifies human needs into two categories:
(i) Hygiene factors, and
(i) Hygiene Factors:
These hygiene factors are involved in the learning environment and situation. Here learning environment means the situation in which the students gain experience or learn new knowledge. Thus, the hygiene factors refer to components of learning environment.
(a) Working conditions,
(b) Administration and norms of the school,
(c) The form of supervision of the school, and
(d) The safety and standard of school.
These factors provide the encouragements to the students to work hard. If these factors are of lower standard, the students would not be happy and it would result the poor learning outcome. The students develop the negative attitude towards the work. The hygiene factors function as pre-requisite for an effective motivation.
These factors are related to the environment or working conditions rather than work or task and form the organizational climate of the school. The principal and teachers should be careful about these factors, because the environment of school influences, directly on the student’s achievement.
The motivators are related to the activities and behaviour of the learners rather the environment of learning. The motivator provides the happiness to the students to increase their level of achievement and develops the positive attitude towards the work. It develops if the feelings of satisfaction and facilitate for better learning. The motivators are organized in teaching-learning activities such as reward, verbal praise, recognition, success, knowledge of result and neatly, etc.
These motivators are helpful in realizing the following facts:
6. The new motive will influence thought and action when the individual sees the motive as an improvement in his self-image.
7. The motive is likely to influence thought and action when the individual can see and experience the new motive as an improvement on the prevailing cultural values.
8. The motive is likely to influence thought and action when the individual keeps a record of his progress toward achieving goals to which he is committed.
9. The motive is likely to influence thought and action when the individual keeps a record of his progress toward achieving goals to which he is committed.
10. Change in motives are likely to occur in an atmosphere in which the person feels warmly but honestly supported and which he is respected by other as person capable of guiding and directing his own future behaviour.
11. The more the setting dramatizes the importance of self-study and lifts it out of the routine of everyday life, the more changes in motives which are likely to occur.
12. If the new motive is a sign of membership in a new reference group, changes in motives are likely to occur.
The fantasies of an individual reveal motivational basis of his actions. Mc Clelland has attempted to make use of the fantasies to measure achievement motivation. He has used the projective technique for measuring achievement, motivation. He has used thematic apparition tests to collect information’s of the fantasies of the subjects with the help of pictures.
The assumption underlying TAT pictures is that when a picture is presented to a person in social setting under unstructured situations and he is asked to tell a story about what is happing in the picture. In doing so he may often reveal about himself or his fantasies. The TAT stories written by the subject are studied qualitative and quantitative. The technique is reliable and promising development in the field of measuring motivation.
Mc Clelland advocates that motives develop out of affective arousal. The theory of motivation is called affective arousal theory.
Mc Clelland suggests a course for teachers, he may teach students how to develop the motive to achieve, and especially those students who are not ably deficient in the desire to meet challenges to master and generally to succeed. He has to develop new entering behaviour to realize advanced instructional objectives.
The teacher can play a crucial role in developing achievement motive by the following ways:
The Teacher Should:
1. Make clear understanding of achievement motive in life by telling the stones of great persons and their achievement.
2. Provide a proper environment in the classroom and in school. The conductive environment develops achievement motive among students.
3. Make it clear to the students that the motives will improve their self-image.
4. Emphasize upon the fact that new motive is an improvement of prevailing social and cultural values.
5. Make an effort to develop conductive social climate in the classroom, so that every student would feel elevated and thus belongs to high group of students.
6. Make students committed to achieving concrete goal in life related to the newly developed motive.
7. Ask the students to keep the record of their progress towards their goal. The teacher should emphasize on self-study of students.
(a) Achievement and performance,
(b) Recognition and responsibility,
(c) Advancement and freedom and
(d) Personal growth.
The motivators have the permanent influence on the change of behaviour of the students whereas hygiene factors have temporary effect. The motivators are included in the activities of teaching content. The hygiene factors and motivators are not contradictory to one another but they are supplementary to one another. The creative approach of teaching can be followed with the help of these motivation and higher motivators provide the self-satisfaction and feeling of self-realization.
The equipment of a classroom, laboratory and library and motivators encourage the students for learning. Therefore, working conditions and norms of the educational instructions should be conducive to learning. There should be good rapport between teacher and students or among students. The internal motivations are more effective than external one. The teacher should use an appropriate techniques of motivation in dealing with different types of students.