Here is a term paper on ‘Health Impaired Children’. Find paragraphs, long and short term papers on ‘Health Impaired Children’ especially written for school and college students.
Term Paper Contents:
- Term Paper on the Meaning and Definitions of Health Impaired Children
- Term Paper on the Classification of Health Impaired Children
- Term Paper on the Characteristics of Health Impaired Children
- Term Paper on the Areas of Health Problem in Health Impaired Children
- Term Paper on the Symptoms of Health Problems in Health Impaired Children
- Term Paper on the Etiology of Health Problem in Health Impaired Children
- Term Paper on the Treatment of Health Impaired Children
- Term Paper on the Education Provisions for Health Impaired Children
Term Paper # 1. Meaning and Definitions of Health Impaired Children:
The term physically handicapped has been used in literature in various ways. Physically disabled crippled, orthopaedically impaired or otherwise health impaired. Physical handicaps and divided into two types- Orthopaedically impaired and health impairments for the purpose of special education. The legal definition of the term orthopaedically handicapped is a server orthopaedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
The term includes impairments caused by a congenital anomaly e.g., club food, absence of somebody organs, impairments caused by disease e.g., cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures. A Similar definition has also been adapted by Department of Social Welfare Government of India.
A physically disabled child is defined as one who’s physical or health problems result in an impairment of normal interaction with society to the extent that specialised services and programmes are required.
This group is extremely heterogeneous group and includes varied disabilities and conditions out of which the commonly encountered are:
(1) Cerebral Palsy:
Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a non-progressive disorder that affects gross and fine motor co-ordination. It is often associated with convulsions. Speech disorders, hearing defects, vision problems, deficits in measure intelligence or combination of these problems. Main types of cerebral palsy are Spasticity, Ataxia, Athetosis, Rigidity and Floppiness.
(2) Myopic Dystrophy:
Myopic Dystrophy is a disease in which the muscles progressively weaken and degenerate until they can no longer functions.
Poliomyelitis (infantile paralysis) is viral infection that affects or destroys some cells in the spinal cord leading to paralysis of part of body or entire body.
(4) Spina Bifida:
Spina Bifida is a congenital defect that result when the bones or a part of the spine fail to grow together resulting in gap in the spine. The area affected and symptoms very depending on the location of spine affected and the extent or disorder.
Amputation it is the absence of some limb.
Physical and health problems may have grave, little or no effect upon the school performance of the student.
The legal definition for other health impairments is having an acute condition that is manifested by severe communication and other developmental and educational problems, or having limited strength vitality or alertness because of acute health problems e.g., heart condition tuberculosis, rheumatic fever, nephritis, asthma, hemophilia, epilepsy, lead poisoning, leukemia, or diabetes that adversely affect a child’s educational performance.
Certain crippling and chronic health disorders in children are seen as a result of infection after they are born. Some of the common examples are- Poliomyelitis, osteomyelitis, tuberculosis, cerebral palsy. Although, the first three do not invariably lead to brain injury, perception, vision and audition deficiencies yet these children demand special educational treatments.
However, there are certain neurological disorders which are not categorised as either crippling or a special health problem e.g., aphasia-language disorder due to brain injury. Hence from an educational point of view crippling and neurological impairments would include all children with non-sensory physical impairments whether they are accompanied by a neurological damage or not, and whether they resulted in chronic health condition of not.
Basically non-sensory physical impairments may be classified as crippling and chronic health ailments. The cripples have muscular and skeletal deformities which are obvious. They may wear braces, prosthetic devices such as artificial limbs or may be moving with crutches or wheel chairs.
The second category of children are confined to bed for relatively long periods of time and just do nothing, the crippled children are known as orthopaedically handicapped or motor impaired whereas the second category were known as special health problem cases.
Some students with physical and health disorders begin their school careers with an identified handicap. With others the problems is first noted after they have entered the school, or it may result from an accident or disease that occurs during the school years. Because of heterogeneity in this group, a single list of signs to identify them is not possible. However, all of them have a common problem of posture, mobility, difficulty in performance of physical activities.
Almost all children with locomotor handicaps, sensory impairments, speech impairments and with mild and even moderate intellectual disabilities can be conveniently placed in ordinary schools. However children with more moderate and serve intellectual deficits and multiple handicaps will still have to be placed in special schools or classes depending on the nature and degree of disability.
Thus, special education will be provided in:
(i) Integrated; and
(ii) Special Schools.
Term Paper # 2. Classification of Health Impaired Children:
Those who are poor physical condition make them inactive and who require special health precautions in school.
Such children can be categorized into the following groups:
i. Children with mild health problems. Come under the educable IED group. Their health problems do not interfere with educational learning. But precautions need to be taken in terms of getting adequate medical checkups and support.
ii. There are children with severe health problems who cannot be integrated in regular schools. The severity of their health problem interferes with educational planning. They will need constant medical care and are therefore not able to participate in the academic and non-academic activities of general classrooms.
Children with severe problem, like heart problem, diabetic, epilepsy, need to rest after 10-15 minutes of studying. It is difficult to accommodate them in general classroom, since they require constant medical care and the full attention of the teacher. Such children need to be educated either at home/hospital or in special classes in general schools.
Some health problems are discussed below:
The problem may occur in disabled children hence, the knowledge of the symptoms and their implications can help the teacher in minimising these problems and helping the disabled to develop their talents like others.
(1) Epilepsy (Neurological Disease):
This is one of the special health problems which is generally faced by children.
The symptoms of this problem are:
(i) The child shakes violently as if in the grip of hysteria,
(ii) There is constant recurrence of fits,
(iii) The child loses consciousness,
(iv) He falls and moves arms and legs violently,
(v) The child may become pale
(vi) He falls and moves arms and legs violently,
(vii) Purposeless activities such as rubbing of arms and body parts, and
(viii) The child starts taking off his clothes.
The problem is due to brain injury or an extra growth in the brain. Some drugs are available to control the fits and the extra growth can be removed by surgery. Epilepsy is treated as special health problems.
Since the fits are painless to the victim, it is important that the teacher should remain calm and not attempt to restrain the child’s movements. All sharp objects that may injure the child should be removed from around him, but the movements must not be interrupted. If the mouth is open some soft objects such as a handkerchief should be placed to prevent the tongue from being bitten.
The child should be allowed to rest after the fit and the parents and doctor should boycott among peers and to protect the child from such treatment, the teacher can use this opportunity to explain the problem to the entire class. The teacher should also explain to the other staff members and the community that the cause of epilepsy is not evil spirits but injury of the brain. The child is normal in his/her intellectual functioning. This will help in better social, emotional and academic integration of such children.
(2) Children with a Diabetic Problem:
Children with the problems show the following symptoms:
Frequent urination, abnormal thirst, extreme hunger, frequent change in weight, generally rapid loss, sleepiness, weakness, usual disturbances are felt more acutely and frequent skin infections such as boils and itching.
This problem can occur in both normal and disabled children studying in your school. As a teacher you are expected to identify these symptoms at an early stage. The problem is because the body not producing sufficient amount of the hormone called insulin and can be controlled by given insulin in the proper dose at the proper time. The teacher’s role is to help the child to get medical examination and to take medicine and diet according to the doctors’ prescription.
(3) Asthma (Bronchial Problem):
Generally, the problem of asthma is overlooked in our classrooms but since it creates some social and emotional problems for the child so it is better if the teacher is made aware of it. The child suffers from breathing trouble due to allergy. The commonly seen symptoms are- difficulty in breathing. (The child takes large gulps of air) becomes pale, breathes noisily and perspires too much. Asthma is caused by allergens such as dust and the pollen of some plants. It may also occur due to excessive physical activity or emotional reaction.
Drugs can be given orally or by injection, which help to control the problem, but it is not completely curable. Teachers who have children the problem, but it is not completely curable. Teachers who have such children in their class should help these children by keeping them away from dust and pollen. They should not be asked to do strenuous exercises. The teacher is also required to help the affected child to adjust to the problem and to involve in social activities that are not too rigorous.
(4) Juvenile Rheumatoid:
Pain in the joint which occurs in younger children is known as Juvenile rheumatoid. Such children have a skin rash and swellings and redness of the eyes. There could be some retardation in growth since it is a disease that attacks the joints. It may cause stunted growth. Swelling and pain occur in the fingers, wrists, elbows, knees, hips and feet. In severe cases, it left untreated the joints become stiff, making movements difficult and painful. Juvenile rheumatoid is a chronic infection of the connective tissue of the body. Drugs and special exercises can prevent the disease from becoming too severe.
In the case of such children the role of teacher is very important. The teacher must be understanding and at the same time, not overprotective. Such children require more time to finish their assignments. Various adjustments such as writing aids and special paper and pencils can be provided to the children who have stiffened upper limbs. Since such children are physically weak, the teacher should not insist on their participating in all the activities.
(5) Anaemia Health Problem:
Anaemia health problem is a condition in which the child suffers from severe loss of blood. Children who suffer from anaemia have periodic attacks of acute pain, may be weak and prone to jaundice and leg ulcers. They have pain the abdomen, knees, elbows and other joints in the body. They suffer from constant headaches and may occasionally faint, feel ringing in the ears and see spots before the eyes. The major cause of this loss of blood is the loss of the red pigment of blood cells known as haemoglobin.
The shape of the red blood cells of the disease. Children afflicted with the disease need to rest frequently and be protected from further infection. The teacher should allow them more time to finish their assignments. Since, it also leads to lack of oxygen, frequent hospital treatment is required. Teacher should get the children medically examined if the suspects any such problems in them. The children with mild type of anaemia need only periodic medical check-ups and medicines according to doctor’s prescription. They can be integrated without any problems.
Term Paper # 3. Characteristics of Health Impaired Children:
Some children with epilepsy are intelligent. Others are mentally slow. Occasionally fits that are very frequent and serve can injure the brain and cause of increase retardation. Treatment to control fits is important.
Some children may have both minor and big fits or they may have first minor ones and later develop big ones. There is a sign of warning or aura. They may suddenly cry and then are finds suddenly jerks or are thrown immediately. These fits vary in duration.
After the fit is over the child may be very sleepy and confused. He/she may feel-body-ache and feel weak.
Children with severe problem, like heart problem, diabetic, epilepsy, need to rest after 10-15 minutes of studying. It is difficult to accommodate them in general classroom since they require constant medical care and the full attention of the teacher.
Epilepsy is the most common neurological disease. In 1870, Jackson defined epilepsy as a group of disorders with paroxysmal and excessive neuronal discharge that cause a sudden discharge in neurological function.
There is a sudden change in intellectual, sensory, motor, autonomic, or emotional activity, limited in length and presumably associated with neuronal over-activity.
Term Paper # 4. Areas of Health Problem in Health Impaired Children:
The following are the main areas of health problem in health impaired children:
There is several type of epilepsy: psychomotor, petitmal, grandmal. In psychomotor epilepsy the individual is violent, vigorous and is doing some automatic action which appear to other as meaningful but are meaningless. During the seizure the child’s behaviour is inconsistent. He makes sucking noises with his mouth, move his hand aimlessly, strikes a child, tears up paper, move about the room. But, the individual does not remember what he has done. Such behaviours include temper tantrums also.
In petitmal, the child loses consciousness for a few seconds but does not fall. His eyes may roll up or there may be a rhythmic blinking of eyelids. He drops things, appears to be staring straight ahead, or stands still; unaware of what is going on around him. The teacher often thinks that he is not paying attention.
He quickly recovers and goes on what he was doing not inconvenience him or to any one to great extent. But if such seizures occur quite frequently the child is apt to lose the thread of a lesson and be handicapped by gaps in continuity. The teacher should watch for sign that indicate a child is having a seizure and repeat directions. He may have missed or checked to see that he has understood what was going on in the class.
A child who has grandmal seizures has less consciousness and fall rigidly on the floor. This is preceded by strange sensation known as aura (warning) and by a shrill cry. His-muscles first tighten, then accompanied by salivation, twitching and tremors may follow. Then come a deep sleep come or stupor. The seizure may last for a minute or two and when he recovers he may be dull or disoriented. He may want to sleep for some more time and consequently his school programmed may be impaired.
Term Paper # 5. Symptoms of Health Problems in Health Impaired Children:
The following are the main symptoms of health problem in health impaired children:
1. Shortness of breath
2. Frequent cough
3. Blue appearance of skin
4. Increased appetite
5. Gets easily tired
6. Restless inattentive
7. Slow and inactive
9. Temper tantrums
10. Abnormal thirst, frequent irritation
12. Perspires often
13. Dust allergy
14. Loss of weight
15. Very easily tired
16. Excessively restless
17. Extremely slow and inactive
18. Unusually breathless after exercise
19. Subject to frequent dry coughs or complains of chest pain after physical exertion.
20. Checks, lips of finger-tip have a slightly bluish colour.
21. Has slight temperature most of the time
22. Extremely inattentive.
23. Faints frequently
24. Complains of pains in the arms, legs, or joints, and
25. Easily irritated-gest angry easily, loses tempt, may exhibit destructive, aggressive tendencies without prospect reason.
A teacher in the integrated classroom teaching can identify the children of health problems by observing their behaviours of special health problem. He can deal such children according to their individual special needs.
Term Paper # 6. Etiology of Health Problem in Health Impaired Children:
Michael (1994) summarized the causes of epilepsy as follows:
1. Idiopathic-causes not known-(30-50) per cent
2. Genetic-(10-20) present by inheritance
3. Metabolic errors-PKU. Maple syrup wine
4. Congenital and perinatal infections
5. Encephalitis and meningitis (brain fever) and severe dehydration.
6. Brain tumors-Intra Cranial space occurring lesions.
7. Brain injury before birth at last among 1/3 of epileptics.
8. Cerebral haemorrhage and
9. Drugs and lead poisoning
10. Cerebral Palsy and epilepsy often occur together.
Brain damage can be prevented during pregnancy. Avoid marriages between close relatives. Anti fits medicines are to be taken for 3 to 4 years to prevent epilepsy occur further.
Term Paper # 7. Treatment of Health Impaired Children:
There are no medicines that can cure epilepsy. There are not vaccinations that can prevent epilepsy. However, medicines can prevent occurrence of fits if these are taken regularly. Sometimes preventing fits for a long time seems to help stop epilepsy permanently.
Treatment for epilepsy generally consists of four parts:
(1) Identification and eliminating of factors that cause or precipitate attacks
(2) Sustaining of general mental and physical health and social integration
(3) Pharmacological therapy that raise the convulsive threshold to prevent attacks
(4) Surgical therapy for carefully selected patients with seizure of focal origin or for those for whom medication has proven completely ineffective.
The commonly used anticonvulsant medications in pharmacological therapy are Dlantin, Mysoline. Sarontin, Tegretoc, Clonopin, Depakene for different types of seizures. The most significant treatment in epilepsy is the growth of good physical and mental health. A nutritious balanced diet and adequate muscular activity will be paralleled by the relief of emotional stress and the creation of an atmosphere of productive and normalcy.
Term Paper # 8. Education Provisions for Health Impaired Children:
Since, the new policy of education (1986) advocates placement of these disabled children in an integrated setting, so far as it is possible and it is a relatively new concept with which our classroom teachers will have to be familiar, it is important for all teachers in the school to understand what integration means: what are the models of placements of such children, what impact it has no the role and responsibilities of school personnel.
As used in special education, integration refers to the education or pupils with special needs in ordinary schools. Integration provides a natural environment where these pupils are along-side their peers and are free from the isolation that is characteristics of special school placement.
The concept of integration is a complex and dynamic one. It has evolved from a simple opposition to placement in a special school to encompassing a variety of arrangements in ordinary schools. This diversity is commonly described in Warnock Report (1978) wherein distinction has been made amongst different form of integration—locational, social and functional.
The ‘locational’ integration relates to the physical location of special education provision. It includes special units or classes in ordinary schools. The special and the ordinary school share the same site. ‘Social’ integration relates to its social aspect, where children attending a special class or unit eat, play and interact with other children, and possible share organized lot-of-classroom activities with them. The third and the fullest form of integration is ‘functional’ integration.
This is achieved where the locational and social association of disabled children with their peers leads to joint participation in educational programmes. Where children with special needs join, part-time or full-time, the regular classes of the school, and make full contribution to the activity of the school. Another form of integration suggested by some authors is ‘societal’ integration.
The best environment for mainstreaming is a classroom that is appropriate to the needs of the handicapped students. A programme continuum provides full spectrum of services that may be tailored to the individual needs of each student at any given time during his education career.
To meet the broad and many faceted changes occurring in schools in response to POA (1986) and (1992) envisaging integration, corresponding changes in teacher education are both necessary and inevitable.
These may include the following programme:
1. De-institutionalisation of many seriously handicapped children.
2. Rapid return of many handicapped students from special day class and school to regular classroom.
3. Decreasing direct service of special education teacher and emphasizing indirect service such as consultative and support function.
4. Participation of regular classroom teacher in determining and writing individualized education plans (IEPs) for students with special needs.
5. Determination of education goals and programmes for exceptional students, based on specific individuals’ learning needs rather than gross categories of exceptionality.
6. Formal involvement of parents of exceptional students in assessment, placement and planning activities.
7. Involvement of other school personnel.
Fundamental changes are being made in the governance of schools as well as in the role of most school personnel. Inevitably, there is gap between theory and practice and many pupils still go to special schools even if they do not need to. To bridge this gap, educational programmes must change to meet new school policies and to prepare school personnel for new roles.
Role of Teacher:
A teacher has to play the following roles for dealing H. I. Children:
(1) Ease the child to the floor.
(2) See that he is not apt to injure himself by striking furniture of sharp comers while convulsions.
(3) Turning the child’s head to one side and carefully placing but never forcing a folded handkerchief of a soft object between back teeth is sometimes advised.
(4) Do not use a pencil or other solid object for the teeth and gums may be injured.
(5) The teacher should help other children in the classroom to accept this seizure calmly and to understand that there nothing contagious or harmful about in convulsion.
Children with epilepsy do not have necessarily low intelligence due to seizures. They show some signs of maladjustment, because social stigma and frustrating environment. Majority of the children with this condition can attend regular school. Normal activity and exercise may actually reduce the frequency of seizures. Incidence is reduced by following ketogenic diet (high fact and carbohydrate) and anti-convulsive therapy.
Mainstreaming or Integrated Classroom:
The regular classroom will provide most children will chronic medical problems with maximum educational opportunity. These who present physical problems present little limitation of activity and therefore should not be deprived of such opportunity. This of course, requires extra teacher training planning and ingenuity children are very sensitive to their teacher and their attitudes and it should be remembered that teacher’s attitude have a contagious effect on the feeling of the total group.
In his environment children will have to face their difference recognise their limits be assured of their acceptance as they are and then be given opportunity for participation and enjoyment of class projects. In each they need support and understanding of the teachers.
The human-centred schooling approach should be followed for those children. The child’s self-concept, his adjustment with other should receive primary focus. The teacher has to participate in overall planning for the pupil.
Special attention has to be paid towards the social and emotional adjustment of the child who because of his disability might feel different unaccepted and some-what insecure. He may fear the physical and social consequence of such efforts.
The teacher should be aware of their specific health problems the therapeutic measures to be taken and the necessary programme alteration. A comprehensive remedial programme is necessary for this group. These factors should be kept in mind while developing programmes for the health impaired.
For helping these children particularly with health impairment standard of achievement expected should be kept at par with the needs of the group and remedial education must compensate the difference of the classroom attainments. Some interesting low level reading books should be on their hand or in library. Teacher can help parents in planning home and community participation for the children.
The ‘Buddy’ system already referred in case of hearing impaired visually impaired may also find a place in case of chronic health disorder cases. The buddy will be responsible to the teacher who will make the necessary adjustments and medical referrals.
No specific prescription can be offered for educating children with chronic illness. Their problems vary according to diagnosis degree of involvement or limitation and supplementary care.
Children do move from one facility to the other. Need for programme continuity, teacher sensitivity and support as children are transferred cannot be over emphasized.
Special Schools and Special Classes:
Special schools and special classes for health impaired children are midway between home and hospitalised instruction.
Most special class accommodate physically limited children by offering a comprehensive remedial health programme. Not all children need health programme i.e., health habits, dietary adjustments, rest etc. In a few other cases, special classes prepare them for regular class placement by raising their educational achievement and adjustment. Comparative efforts will be exerted towards developing poise in social relationships by participation in both independent and group activity.
No child should be placed in a special school or special class without complete physical evaluation. Normally Health Impaired children are placed in special class according to their types and degree of illness. Teacher should introduce the children to as many aspects of the school programme as possible and encourage them to explore all the ways in which they can prepare for participation with their own class and with other children in school. The school curriculum should also take into consideration the child’s need for adjusting to the pace of non-handicapped. Curriculum roads to maturity and self-understanding should be explored.
National Provision and Assistance for Health Impaired:
Since the advent of independence, the Government of India have taken a number of initiatives in the field of special education, vocational training, rehabilitation, manpower development and technology upgradation.
Important schemes of the Ministry of Welfare are as follows:
i. Assistance to Voluntary Organizations for the Disabled:
The Ministry of Welfare, Government of India gives upto 90% assistance to voluntary organisation for the education, training and rehabilitation of the disabled. For rural areas, assistance is given upto 95%. In 1993-94 about 315 voluntary organisation were provided with assistance to the tune of Rs. 10.40 crores. A component to rehabilitate mentally ill persons has been added in the scheme.
ii. Assistance for Aids and Appliances:
The Government of India under this scheme provides free aids and appliance to those persons with disability whose monthly income does not covered Rs. 1200 while 50% subsidy is provided to those whose income is between Rs. 1201-2500 per month. This scheme is being implemented through both governmental and non-governmental agencies.
iii. Assistance to Voluntary Organization for Rehabilitation of Leprosy-cured persons:
This scheme envisages providing financial assistance to voluntary organisation working for leprosy-cured persons. Assistance is given upto 90% such voluntary organization who develop programmers for an awareness generation. Early intervention educational and vocational training, economic rehabilitation and social integration of the leprosy-cured persons.
iv. Assistance to Voluntary Organisation for Persons with Cerebral Palsy & Mental Retardation:
This scheme aims at developing organisational and infrastructural facilities for manpower training and professionals, hostels and other assistance required for imparting training of various categories of workers trainers such as vocational teachers, rehabilitation, wardens etc., in the field of Cerebral Palsy and mental Retardation. Assistance is given upto 100% of expenditure recurring and non-recurring items.
National Trust for the Social Welfare of Persons with Mental and Cerebral Palsy:
A National Trust for the Welfare of Persons with Mental Retardation and Cerebral palsy is proposed to be set-up. An amount of Rs. 1.25 crores has been ear-marked for this purpose.
The objectives of the proposed National Trust would be as follows:
1. To arrange, to provide care and rehabilitation to the mentally retarded and the cerebral palsied as a step towards social security who are under the guardianship of the Trust.
2. To lay down guidelines for the improvement of the existing organizations which are engaged in taking care of mentally retarded and cerebral palsied depending upon the availability of finances.
3. To set up homes and services institutions for providing residential care to persons with mental retardation and cerebral palsy.
4. To provide financial and technical assistance to the organization providing care and rehabilitations services to persons with mental retardation and cerebral palsy.
5. To provide guardianship and foster care and to take over the guardianship rights of the persons with mental retardation and cerebral palsy after the death of the parents, if so, desired by the family or in absence of family support.
6. To extent and support the welfare programmes of families/foster families/parent and associations and voluntary oraganisation.
7. To provide legal aid to the mentally retarded persons and their families.
8. To receive, own and manager properties bequeathed by the parents to maintain their child with mental retardation or cerebral palsy after their death.