The following points highlight the five main theories of personality. The theories are: 1. The Factorial Theory (R.B. Cattle) 2. An Individual Approach Theory (Allport) 3. Murray’s Theory of Personality 4. The Organismic Theory (Goldstein) 5. The Field Theory (Kurt Lewin).
This theory has been developed by R.B. Cattle. He has defined the term personality.
“Personality is that which permits a prediction of a person what will he do in a given situation.”
Main Features of his Theory:
It has the following main three characteristics:
1. He has restricted to ‘units of behaviour.’ It must be integrated into a larger whole, is the true picture of the functioning of personality.
2. Both types of traits physiological and psychological are possible units of behaviour. But Cattle favours the trait approach is more fruitful.
3. The traits are inferred from the individual behaviour i.e., personality is an integration of traits.
The traits are classified into categories:
(a) Surface traits, and
(b) Source traits.
(a) Surface Traits:
Surface traits are revealed by correlating traits elements or traits indicators which are behaviour sample which go together, independence, boldness alertness with enthusiasm.
(b) Source Traits:
Source traits are revealed by factor analysis and represent deeper level viable and more significant aspect of personality.
He found by conducting experiments that units of behaviour found to correspond to most fundamental influence, physiological, temperamental and social which give rise to personality.
In repeated factorial studies Cattle has found evidences for as many as 15 source traits. However, only six are repeatedly confirmed and unmistakable.
1. Cyclothymic Vs Seluzithymic (constitutional)
2. General mental capacity Vs Mental defect.
3. Surgency Vs Desurgency
4. Adventures cyclothymic Vs Anxiety seluzithymic.
5. Socialized, cultured Vs Boovishness
6. Bohemian concerned Vs Conventional or personality.
Further Classification of Traits:
The traits can also be classified into two major categories:
1. Environmental Mold Traits
2. Constitutional Traits (Hereditary determinants).
1. Environmental mold traits are of three types:
(a) Dynamic- Goal direct behaviour.
(b) Ability- How well he worked towards the goal.
(c) Temperament- Emotional activities. Speed or energy with which he reacts.
Dynamics of the Functioning of Personality:
It depends on two components:
(i) Base Ergs, and
(ii) Meta Ergs.
(i) Base Ergs have five sources:
(a) A dynamic constitutional source trait.
(b) Selectively turned towards certain environmental objects.
(c) An ergic pattern carries with it a certain characteristic of emotion.
(d) The pattern results in a certain specific type of goal satisfaction.
(e) An innate preference for path leading to goal.
Examples of ergs are sex, self-assertion, fear, gregariousness parental, protectiveness, appear of self, abasement, play curiosity and narcissism.
(ii) Meta Ergs have two sources:
(a) In all respects like erg except that it is an environmental mold trait attitude, sentiments and motives.
(b) Meta erg is also learned.
Development of Personality:
It the development of personality R.B. Cattle has emphasized, unfolding maturational processes and their modification through learning and experience. He suggests four ways for developing personality of an individual.
1. Modification of ergs.
2. Elaboration of Meta ergs.
3. Organization of self, and
4. Dynamic lattices involving subsidization, chaining ergs and Meta ergs.
In this way, Cattle have developed seventeen principles for developing personality of an individual.
Evaluation of the Factorial Theory:
1. He has used ‘factor analysis’ method for developing his theory of personality. Therefore, it is mainly influenced by demerits of factor analysis method.
2. He has given main stress on traits and ergs in his theory. Thus, the theory of dominated by traits and ergs. His theory seems to be very close to Murray’s theory.
3. A teacher has to modify the ergs of students and has to elaborate their meta-ergs to make his teaching effective.
4. He has not taken into consideration social variables in extracting the factors for personality interpretation.
2. An Individual Approach Theory (Allport):
Allports theory of Personality is considered his significant contribution in psychology. It is also known as psychology of individuality. His approach in defining the personality is a synthesis of contemporary definitions.
Definition of Personality According to Allport:
“Personality is the dynamic organization within an individual of those psycho-physical systems that determine his unique adjustment to his environments.”
He has emphasized the following aspects of personality:
1. Personality as a dynamic or growing system of an individual.
2. It consists of psycho-physical system or factors.
3. Personality is the uniqueness of each individual.
4. The psycho-physical factors determine his adjustment to his environment. The adjustment is the function of the personality.
Allport views on personality span a period of 20 years duration.
He has been guided by the basic principles:
(a) To do justice for the complexity of personality compounded as it is hereditary, temperamental, social and psychological factors.
(b) To recognize or identify the uniqueness of each individual personality despite the many communities that exist among different people.
(c) Both nomothetic (universal laws) and ideography unique methods and combined to study the personality.
(d) He has opposed psycho-analytic view of personality dynamics in which present behaviour must be treated to its genetic origin.
Concept of Psychology of Individuality:
1. Functional autonomy of motives and
2. Theory of traits.
(1) Functional Autonomy of Motives:
It refers to the following sub-concepts:
It holds that adult motives are of varied nature.
“Self-sustaining contemporary systems, growing out of antecedent systems but functionally independent of them.”
It refers to the observation that a given activity originally serving a motive may becoming motivating in its own right, hence autonomous.
It explains the transformation of the selfish child into socialized adult. It accounts for the force e.g., phobia delusion and other forms of compulsive behaviour.
The driving force behind such complex activities as craftsmanship, artistic, endeavour and genius is explained as love of the activity for its own sake.
(2) Theory of Traits:
Traits and attitudes are both the central concepts in the psychology of personality.
Definition of a Trait:
“A trait is a generalized and vocalized neuropsychic system (peculiar to the individual) with the capacity to render stimuli functionally equivalent and to initiate and guide consistent forms of adaptive and expressive behaviour.”
(a) Traits are functionally autonomous reaction tendencies which are aroused by focal classes of stimulus situations.
(b) Such reaction tendencies are, in a sense unique for each individual personality, but because of common biological and environmental influences many traits may be considered as common traits, thus allowing for the measurement and prediction of behaviour.
Characteristics of Traits:
The following are the main characteristics of traits:
1. Traits are both general and focal.
2. Traits are around by certain classes of stimuli and not by specific stimuli.
3. Traits have dominance tendency in the presence of other people.
4. Traits are consistent or permanent in nature.
Classification of Traits:
Traits are classified into two categories- Individual traits, and Common trait.
In a sense every trait is an individual trait.
This may be of following types:
(a) Cordial traits,
(b) Central traits, and
(a) Cordial Traits:
Cordial traits are outstanding all pervasive, dominant in the individual life a ruling passion.
(b) Central Traits:
Central traits are focal of personality, ordinary measured by rating scale, mentioned in conversation and described in words of recommendation.
Personality demonstrates a unity and integration of different type trait; he shows his concerns with the problem of identifying the inner essence of personality.
The Concept of Self:
The concept of self includes the bodily sense, self-identity, awareness of continuity of self, ego enhancement ego excitation, identification of external objects with the self, rational cognitive function, the self-images, appropriate striving refers to the self as opposed to behaviour which is peripheral to the self.
The forms of behaviour that serve self-realization represent growth or abundance motivation as opposed to deficiency of motivation.
Evaluation of Allports Theory:
It has the following merits and demerits of this theory:
(1) His theory is quite influential among those psychologists whose major concern is with area of personality.
(2) His theory seems to be more comprehensive to cover all aspects of an individual.
(3) He has tried to explain the phenomenon of self but self has been vindicated.
(4) He is very tender minded on theorizing the psychology of personality or individuality.
(5) He is greatly influenced by existentialism.
3. Murray’s Theory of Personality:
Murray’s theory of personality resembles with Allports in its humanistic, holistic and elective orientation to the problems involved in developing a theory of personality.
This theory of Murray has been greatly influenced by psycho-analytic theory of personality. He has placed great stress on the importance of environmental influence on the individual. It has consistently stressed on the physiological processes which are underlying in behaviour manifestation.
Definition of Personality:
According to Murray “Personality is the continuity of functional forms and press manifested through sequences of organized regiment processes and overt behaviours, from birth to death.”
This definition of personality includes the following characteristics of personality:
(a) Continuity in the functional forms.
(b) Regnant processes dynamically organized brain activities.
(c) Emphasis on functional forms i.e., overt behaviour.
Concept Related to Personality:
Murray’s theory is also known as ‘Theory of Need’. He has defined the term need.
“A need is a construct (hypothetical force) which stands for a force (the physic chemical nature which is unknown) in the brain region, a force which organized perception, apperception intellection, conation and action in such a way as to transform in certain direction an existing unsatisfying situation.
According to Murray, an unsatisfied need would arouse the person to work that would be sustained until satisfaction had been attained.
All needs have been classified into two broad categories:
(1) Vicerogenic needs, and
(2) Psychogenic needs.
(1) Vicerogenic Needs:
Vicerogenic Needs are also known as primary needs which are essential for the survival of an organism. They include hunger, thirst, sex, water, food secretion, defecation, urination, warmth, etc.
(2) Psychogenic Needs:
Psychogenic Needs are the secondary which emerge out of primary needs. Murray has given a long list of these needs.
Some important Murray’s needs are as follows:
12. Similance (empathy)
20. Need press theory
21. Proceedings-Internal and External
22. Concepts of Sentience
23. Development of Personality.
Evaluation of Murray’s Theory:
It has the following advantages and limitations:
1. Murray approach is elective to the theory of personality. He tries to integrate the concepts of theorists of personality.
2. He has emphasized on dynamic and perceptual factors, but he has ignored ‘self and individuality.
3. His theory appears to be more complex. The need press concept is very close to psycho-analytic theory.
4. He has given main stress on secondary needs in explaining the personality. Other aspects, intellectual, social and physical have not been considered.
4. The Organismic Theory (Goldstein):
He takes biological view in explaining a person. He looks for mental and emotional factors operating in organic conditions. Psycho-biological concept is better working hypothesis for psychiatric work and mental metrics. The study of nervous system come of these developments proceeds from whole to the part.
Characteristics of the Theory:
The following are the main characteristics of this theory:
1. It emphasises on individual as whole. Individual is regarded as a unity in multiplicity.
2. An individual is to be described with regard to situation and the individual continually changes by environment to achieve optimal performance.
3. An individual has relationship with environment with three levels:
(a) Biological level concerns with needs hunger, thirst and sex.
(b) Psychological level reacts to the environment taking part in the environment.
(c) Valuation level concerns with appreciation and values for the effectiveness and tries to evaluation the environment.
According to Goldstein there is only one drive, the drive is self-actualization with in self. Making the hidden potential to make the self-real.
The self is the integrating factor in conscious experiences. Psychology of self means as conceived organized whole round the concept of self.
Goldstein recognizes five characteristics of self:
i. Self is complex, relates to functions as feeling of self, willing of self and thinking of self.
ii. Self is relatively persistence.
iii. Self is unique and replaceable. Two persons cannot feel in similar manner.
iv. Self-feeling, thinking and willing cannot be replaced by the individual experiences.
v. Self is an agent which is related to conscious of an object or person.
The function of an individual is the whole not a part of his experiences.
Theory of Conversion:
It is the characteristic in developing the child totality in the environment influences. One trait converses to the conversion. The conversion leads to personality. The group of traits leads to another traits of the personality. A person is the combination or bundle of traits. The traits react together. The person is endowed with traits.
Theory of Salient:
Whatever is salient at the same time imrabbed in deeper layers of a person when we take on the topic ‘the deeper layers’ of conscious comes out? The salient has its roots in unconscious mind layers of personality.
Evaluation of Organismic Theory:
The following are the merits and demerits of this theory:
1. It has emphasized the biological and psychological levels or factors.
2. The environment plays significant role in the development of personality.
3. It has also stressed upon self. Self has been defined in detail.
4. The theory involves to sub-theory of conversion and salient.
5. The theory has emphasized the whole person not a part.
5. The Field Theory (Kurt Lewin):
This theory describes how a person gains understanding of himself and his world in a situation where he and his environment compose totality of mutual interdependent and coexisting fact.
This is also known as cognitive field theory of learning. Under this theory learning is defined as relativistic process by which a learner develops new insight or changes old once in no sense is learning a mechanistic automatic process of connecting stimulus and response within a biological organism. Insight consciously defined basic sense of feeling for relationship, insight into matter into its meaning persons insight collectively constitute, the cognitive structure of life space.
Cognitive structure the way of a person how he perceives i.e., psychological aspects of a personal physical and social world. Such a world includes a person and all his facts, concepts, beliefs and expectation, consequently the cognitive structure of life space, figures in the development language, emotion actions and social inter-correlation.
Cognitive Field Psychology:
The development of cognitive field psychology is attributed largely Kurt Lewin and his associates. Kurt Lewin considered psychology (Action research) as a science closely related to everyday life. The centre of Lewin psychological interest was in motivating conditions of a person environment situation and furthermore he was extremely in democratic practice and principles. Although field theory is applicable in all field of psychology it is particularly useful in social personality and educational psychology.
Lewin’s goal was to make the concept of field psychology of sufficient scope, applicable to all kind of behaviour and yet specific enough to permanent representative of definite person in concert situation. He observed that Laws of (S-R) association in psychology are based on statistical predication and that statistical prediction may apply to the average of children or to the typical behaviour age group, but they do anticipate what will do in specific situation.
To give prediction in specific situation man’s behaviour and ‘topology.’ He thought the objective psychology demands field adequately and accurately it exists for an individual at particular time, consequently to be objective field of Psychology:
Methods of Cognitive Field Psychology:
It has two methods:
(1) Topology, and
(2) Vector Analysis.
Kurt Lewin field psychology is more precisely called topological vector psychology is developing his psychology. He borrowed this idea and concepts from other subjects namely Physics and Geometry. The key concepts which he borrowed where topology from geometry, vector from physics. In using these related concepts he died add rigidly to the definite of mother science. But constitute them in manner most useful in system of psychology, through the use of topology and vector concept.
Lewin pictured the psychological reality in term of field relationship of a person and these environments in so doing he applied method of field theory, it had been developed physical science however, concept of physical sciences did not lend themselves. He did not use same concept and fact did field theory in sister sciences. The following terms summarized the concept of field theory.
A consciously behaving self centre of abilities and needs that child, when he says ‘I am.’
2. Person Need:
State of a person which they exist in relation to a goal and determination towards that goal, correspond to tension system inner person.
Ability means cognitive concept to know environment, exclusive capacity to manipulate environment. Everything in which person can make psychological moment to do anything about. Person and environment are mutually dependent one another.
4. Cognitive Structure:
An environment including a person as known by the person he has one dimension clarity (insight or understanding).
5. Foreign Hull:
Foreign Hull of a life space complex of none psychological environment or facts which surrounds a life space that part of person’s physical environment particular environment which does not include in psychological environment, physical social raw material foreign hull tends behavioural possibilities.
Kurt Lewin and Hull are mathematician psychology. Hull verified 16 postulate by mathematical formula. Similarly, Lewin reduces his concept and proved by vector and by topology.
Values are of two types negative and positive. If an individual is drawn towards the life space positive valence and away from it negative valence. The person tends to move in that region or away from it i.e., valence.
It relates to the relative position of respective region of a person temporarily continue to life space when we consider a study of a person-environmental situation, behavioural adequately devotes changes which occurs in life space.
Which very closely related and descriptive to psychological needs, the state of one system relative to the stage of surrounding system. It is either created as result of opposed forces or induced by internal physiological changes or external stimuli and inner personal region may come into equilibrium in state of tension, release of tension may be achieved either through reaching goal, restricting the life space.
A region of valence it is common point toward which forces within a life space point. It is a region of life space to which a person has psychological attractive barrier; it is dynamic part of environment which resists motion through it, that which stands in the way a person reaching to goal.
Essential Feature of Field Theory:
The unique approach to the study of perception and reality is one of the features of this theory; other important characteristics are interpreted intelligence behaviour as propulsive.
It emphasizes psychological function rather than objects a situational approach a historical point of view and stress up the principle of contemporally:
1. Perception and Reality:
There is no absolute, it is defined relatives.
2. Purposiveness of Behaviour:
Simultaneous and mutual interaction. A person and his environment are simultaneous interacting and participating in perception neither the organism nor the environment made the factor.
In classroom situation the different of behaviour of students to different teacher. Simultaneous mutually interaction is different individual environment. An intelligence behaviour is purposive. When a child behaving purposively he is pursuing his goal and enlighten his insights. It means that he has intelligence behaviour.
3. Emphasis on Psychological Environment:
Emphasis on psychological environment is rather than function. Every individual has its own psychological environment.
4. Situational Emphasis:
The situation as whole is to be taken into account for psychological study. The specific details and various aspects of situation come later at no time aspect of field viewed as isolated elements. Here Lewin concept is Gestalt.
5. The Principle of Contemporarily Literally:
Meaning of contemporarily is at all time. Whatever, the length of time everything is going at once. Lewin lays emphasis on the past also.
Educational Implications of Field Theory:
1. Learning as Change in Cognitive Structure:
As one learns one increase in knowledge. A change in the structure of knowledge (cognitive structure), may occur with repetition. The important thing is that the cognitive structure gets changed, not the repetitions occur it depends on the better arrangement of situation. Change in cognitive structure come about in the part. A psychological force may have two consequences. It can lead to locomotion and change the cognitive structure.
2. Reward and Punishment:
Those who accept law of effect or reinforcement theories have seldom analyzed in detail what circumstances are which force the learner to confront the reward or the threat or punishment. The punishment is used to keep the learner at an intrinsically disliked task; the tendency is to leave the field. Reward situation is attractive and keeps the learner in the field.
3. Success and Failure:
It is more appropriate to think of the goal actively as successful or unsuccessful rather than or rewarding or punishing.
(i) To reach the goal constitutes success positive valence.
(ii) To get within the region of the goal may be successful experience.
(iii) To make noticeable progress toward a goal may provide a successful experience.
(iv) To select a socially approved goal may in itself be a successful experience.
It is Lewin’s credit is that he made serious effort to deal with psychological real problem.
Psychological success and failure depends upon ego involvement in the task at hand that is the goals must be real to the learner. Easy word is not spelled correctly it not the psychological failure. Experienced teachers know how hard it is to keep task at an appropriate level of difficulty so that the learner remain ego involved.
4. Learning as a Change in Behaviour:
The goal attractiveness is what Lewin calls valence and valence change.
Often desirable outcome is a change in the interest of the learner, that is, changes in the relative attractiveness of one goal over another.
Goals originally unattractive may become acceptable through a change in the meaning of the goal related activity. There are many teaching techniques which depend upon this principle.
(i) Changing of food preference by telling a story.
(ii) This is common radio devices for instruction.
(iii) The behaviour of teacher necessary change cognitive structure of the student fear of change in valence.
5. The Field Theory is significant for a group of children who are more than average and have the ability to see the relationship different person and goal. It is therefore, useful for teaching the bright children.
6. It emphasises, the development of insight and change in cognitive structure. Every experienced teacher should be careful while interpreting the behaviour pattern of the class.
7. Subject-matter presented in the class should be based on the student experiences this is also guided by the field theory.
8. The field theory encourages the teacher to be active and self-organizer. It also emphasises dynamic learning which can prove much useful for teacher in the class.
9. The concept of frustration, conflict and aspiration can be analyzed in teaching learning situation, can be better understood by the field theory.
10. The approach of the teacher in the classroom should be situational oriented, i.e., the most important contribution.
Freud theory emphasizes the biological drives-hunger, excretion and sex in particular. Most other theories place somewhat great emphasis on social factors. Adler emphasizes the concept of the inferiority complex and the concept of compensation. All parts theory of personality emphasize traits.
Trait Theory of Personality:
One is the concept of the uniqueness of personality. Each person having his unique background of child experiences develops a set of traits that are unique to him.
Second feature of the theory is the concepts of functional autonomy of motives. Each person acquires motivation as part of satisfying other motives.
Personality is determined at least in part, by the constitutional make-up of the person.
(a) Components of Body Build:
(ii) Mesomorphy, and
(iii) Ectomorphy, Somatic features.
(b) Components of Temperaments:
(ii) Somatinia, and
Behaviourism of School Concept of Psychology:
It is the sum total of all activities by which an individual is known in the social world. A social personality on whose activities are mainly social. Intellectual personality one which does intellectual activities. The sum of (S-R) makes the personality structure. External environment has great influence on the personality development.
Pleasure and Pain Principle:
This operates at the initial stage. Heredity factor has no effect on personality development, 100 per cent effect of environment on the personality development.
Main sources environment mood of acquiring behaviour conditioning a habit. Hereditary factors consist of anatomical, physiological and mineralogical growth which follows maturation and produces difference in personality make up by different kind of secretion.
Recent Approach to the Personality:
Mainly personality consists four aspects:
1. Cognitive function (awareness of self, sensation perception memory, intelligence, learning, ability, attitude).
2. Affective function (temperament).
3. Conative function (character) feeling, emotion, sublimation.
4. Physiological aspect or functions (body formation).
Personality has a hierarchical organization of all these cognitive, affective, conative, physiological functional aspects. Each function or aspect conative physiological functional aspects. Each function or aspect constitutes the personality structure.
(1) Specific Response:
If an organism responds in different ways in different situation in different time, then the behaviour is termed as a specific response.
If an organism gives the same response for the same situation at different time then it is termed as habit response.
Persistent behaviour of the same situation is called habit response or habit formation.
If an organism gives the same response in different situation at different time, then response is termed as trait response.
The trait is the persistent behaviour in different situation and different time the response is same.
SR →HR → TR → TP (Type of Personality). This hierarchy constitutes the personality type.
Putting a person into a group or category, it gives a general description of person is easier.
Meaning of Trait of Personality:
To describe a personal characteristic of persistence behaviour in specific situation. It is difficult to describe two individual or into the same category, but they differ the trait of a specific characteristic. Same type of traits of people may be classified into different type of personality.