The following points highlight the four main stages of development of an individual. The stages are: 1. Period of Infancy 2. Period of Early Childhood 3. Late Childhood or Pre-Adolescence 4. Adolescence.
Stage # 1. Period of Infancy:
We may call the first three years of life as the period of infancy.
We may recapitulate the same:
a. Physical Development:
These years are marked by rapid physical development. The size increases rapidly – ten inches in the second year, in the case of boys. In due course, the trunk grows faster than the head, and the proportion between head and trunk changes. The bodily functions tend to become more stable. The body controls the new situations of change in temperature, air, sugar, salt, work, balance and equilibrium.
b. The Nervous System:
There is an increase in the number of size of nerve cells during the prenatal period. After birth, these attain maturity. The brain grows rapidly. There is a rapid improvement in the functions and structure of sensory organs. By the end of this period, the child is able to perform all the functions of seeing, hearing, testing, smelling and feeling quite clearly, and as maturely as an adult.
c. Motor Development:
During the period of one month to two years, there is gradual development in the co-ordination and control of bodily movements.
d. Linguistic Development:
The child at birth can only cry as an expression of emotion-pleasure or pain. His cries, at 6 months age, indicate his, recognition of some new situations. By the first birthday he may utter a few words-Mama, papa. It is at one year and a half that language-development, becomes more rapid. By the age of three, the child expresses his basic thoughts.
e. Emotional Development:
The infant expresses the emotions of pain and pleasure and these are further classified into anger, disgust, fear, elation and affection. He depends upon his mother in all matters, and needs, constant attention. He feels pleasure in the company of the mother, and distress in her separation.
f. Social Development:
Mother is the first company of the infant. The father and siblings are the nest. The only social experience he gets is in the company of the family members and later on the company of a few children in the neighbourhood. It is only at the end of the period of infancy that the child begins to take notice of other infants and to play with them.
Stage # 2. Period of Early Childhood:
This period is the pre-school period between the ages of three to six. Educationally, this is the most important and impressionable age. It is the period of rapid physical and intellectual development.
a. Physical Development:
The child at three is normally a healthy child. During this period, there is increase in the ratio of muscular development. The varied play-activities, in which he absorbs himself help in the muscular and motor development. He acquires motor skills like catching, throwing, running, jumping, climbing, scribbling, using simple tools and riding a tricycle.
b. Linguistic Development:
There is rapid increase in vocabulary. Words are combined into coherent phrases and sentences, and simple thoughts are communicated with ease. Language development is also affected by the socio-economic environment at home. Better social environment and greater attention by parents helps in increased speech development. A second language other than the mother tongue tight cause linguistic interference.
c. Emotional Development:
The emotional behaviour of the child at this stage is further differentiated into affection for parents, affection for other members of family, attraction for play-mates, hope, disappointment, anxiety, shame, jealousy, hatred and fear. He still retains to some degree an attitude of dependence on parents. He is still largely guided by his innate tendencies and
There is a chain of feelings of submission and elation, which alternate frequently. His moral behaviour also is directed by his emotions, the pleasure and pain. Again, at this stage, his emotions begin to be organised into sentiments. The most primitive sentiment is his love for his own self. This stage is therefore, called the stage of ‘Narcissism’ auto-erotism or self-love.
The word ‘Narcissism’ has been taken from a Greek legend of Narcissus where the theme is ‘falling in love with ourselves’. Clearly the child wants attention for himself. But soon the child extends his sentiment to his parents. He develops a deep sentiment of affection for his parents. According to Freud, the boy loves the mother, and the girl is attached to the father. Thus, he gives two technical names – Oedipus Complex and Elektra Complex, taken from Greek mythology.
Oedipus was the hero who stayed his father and married his mother. Elektra was the heroine who loved her father Agamemnon, and got her mother slayed. We may not admit the truth of the Freudian theory to the, degree Freud state. But, it is certain that at this stage, a boy has got great attachment for his mother, and the girl for her father. This leads us to the importance of having women teachers in the nursery schools for boys, and men teachers for girls. The boys look at the lady teachers as mother substitutes.
d. Intellectual Development:
At this stage, the child has got varied experiences connected with his immediate environment. He has accumulated a fund of knowledge. He can attend to his basic needs of feelings, clothing etc. himself. He learns the rudiments of reading and writing through play-activities. Montessori apparatus and Kindergarten gifts play an important role in his early education at this period.
Since this is the most impressionable stage of development, the pre-school education has assumed greater importance in the eye of modern psychologists. The instincts of curiosity, constructiveness and acquisition and the innate tendency of play work wonders at this stage. The child is again profusely imaginative.
This stage is also called the stage of fantasy, for the child may sojourn in the realms of imaginary worlds in order to escape the harsh realities of his immediate environment. He finds himself in the company of a compassionate and loving fairly, a goddess or godfather.
Imitation and make-believe are also at the climax during this stage. Most of the play-activities are characterised by irritation and make-believe, perhaps a preparation for the future.
e. Social Development:
The primary social milieu for the child is the family. It is here that he gets the first lessons, in social intercourse. He learns how to behave, talk and converse with the family members. His second experience is in the neighbourhood. He might feel shocked to observe that the social atmosphere in the neighbourhood is not similar to that at home. But this stock is necessary as it forms a prerequisite for the later social experience in the nursery school.
He begins to have playmate, to develop friendship with other children, and to steer his way amongst them with self-reliance. He may become member of a group. It is here that he obtains a complex social behaviour characterised by co-operation, sympathy, social approval, teasing, bullying, quarrelling and rivalry.
Stage # 3. Late Childhood or Pre-adolescence:
This is the period between 6 and 12 years of age, beginning with the entry into school and ending in the advent of puberty. This is the period of excellence and pseudo-maturity. New interests develop and except maturity in sex, there is maturity in other physical and mental spheres. As regards, sex, it remains dormant, but emerges with great force at the end of this stage. It is therefore that this stage, is called ‘latency period’.
a. Physical Development:
This is the period of steady growth. The first teeth are replaced by the permanent set. The bones become harden. The height and weight increase. There is improvement in motor development, skill and endurance. A child at this stage is physically restless. He must engage himself into one or the other activity.
b. Mental Development:
This is the age of intellectual advancement, when new experiences are acquired and applied. The child develops powers of observation, reasoning and abstract thinking. He accumulates a large amount of knowledge and information. He learns the three R’s-reading, writing and arithmetic. He is able to read books, and derive information and pleasure. His power of perception becomes keen.
His memory (remembering, recognising and recalling) becomes keener. This gives place to logical thinking. Physically and intellectually, this is the period of stability. His I.Q., also becomes stable and indicates the degree of his intellectual capacity for future. He displays interest in reading different types of works. A boy loves adventure and fairy tales, and a girl loves fairy tales, mild romance and biographies.
c. Social Development:
During this period, there is further development of social traits like ‘co-operation and team-spirit. Gregarious instinct ripens at this stage, and it gets numerous opportunities for fulfillment while the child comes into contact with children of his age in the neighbourhood and in the school. Now the child tries to loosen the shackles of the family ties.
He becomes increasingly independent of his parents, whom he considers merely convenient persons to provide food and shelter. He becomes member of a gang or band, and plays all sorts of mischief with the elders when these work. He asserts himself in the gang, and sometimes becomes a hero or a leader.
In words of Ross, “he no longer ploughs his lovely furrow, but finds the company of others like himself an indispensable means of self-assertion” In the wake of asserting ones self, the self centred behaviour sometimes gives rise to jealousies quarrels and aggression. But he learns one important lesson.
He is ruled by public opinion, and becomes conscious of his allegiance to his gang, whose dictates he complies silently any at and cost (even at the cost of resentment of his parents).
Social development takes place mostly at the playfield. Boys usually take exuberant interest in competiting games like football, hockey, kabaddi and khokho. The girls usually prefer indoor games, but given the opportunity, they show interest in badminton and skipping. The team spirit develops here, but there are numerous chances of quarrels.
Boys indulge into physical combat; and girls into verbal fight or pulling each other’s hair. Boys like biking, climbing and mischief-making. Girls at this stage, show interest in music, painting, needlework and dancing.
d. Moral Development:
The conduct of the young boy is mostly governed by the mores of his group. To some extent, the consciousness of right or wrong is determined by the religious and moral training received at home. The rebukes of the parents work as deterrents. But the more his parents are aggressive, the less are the children co-operative. The parents have to be very careful in dealing with the child.
The child may flout the authority of the parents. But he dare not challenge the gang. This is, what is called ‘school boy morality’. Such moral behaviour is dangerous only when the group is not lead properly by the school authorities. The group can work wonders, if its energies ire channelised to altruistic works.
But this is the period, when altruism is not understood by the child. His main interest is to engage himself in outdoor activities, with an ‘one-ward look’. He is an extrovert, and he is intensely curious to know the world around. He is more practical than he was during the infancy, or will be during adolescence.
Stage # 4. Adolescence:
a. The Nomenclature:
What is exactly the period of adolescence? When does it begin and when does it end? From the biological point of view, adolescence is the stage when puberty dawns. Hence it may begin with 13 and go up to 20. There are marked physiological changes in this period, especially with regard to sex. posting
These changes are discussed below. But there is no rigid uniformity as regards the beginning of these changes. Among boys the puberty period is usually between 13 and 17, but among girls 11 to 16. The onslaught of puberty depends upon numerous factors such as sex, standard of living, health and climate. Culturally, adolescence period varies from community to community.
In some communities marriage among girls takes place quite early – as early as 13. Even boys are made to marry and start some profession at the age of 16. Practically adolescence ends when adulthood is thrust upon them quite early. In middle-class families, the tendency to delay the marriage even to 25 among girls, and to engage them in higher studies, prolongs the adolescence period.
Any way adolescence is the period between late-childhood and adulthood. In words of Ross, “adolescence is best regarded as a recapitulation of the first period of life, as second turn of the spiral of development.”
b. Physical Development:
There is a sudden change in height and weight, due to hyperactivity, of endocrine glands. Some boys mature early and are tall for their age. Some achieve high degree of muscularity, which they utilise in sports and athletics. Girls grow more rapidly and turn to be women. The bones, muscles and other organs of both boys and girls grow very speedily. They reach the final body type by the end of adolescence.
(ii) Changes in bodily development:
The physical growth is also disproportionate due to extra lengthening of limbs with hands and feet looking longer. The entire physique is now awkward and clumsy, and the adolescent becomes conscious of the same. He observes growth of body-hair, particularly in pubic and under-arm areas. There is a change in the contours of face and body.
(iii) Changes in body-functions:
With the secretion of hormones from ductless glands there is change in body-functions. The muscles harden. The voice of the boy deepens and becomes high-pitched. In the case of girls, it becomes shrill. Menstruation starts in girls, and night emissions in boys.
(iv) Sex. Sexual development is the central fact of adolescence:
It is at the beginning of this period that sex-glands begin to function. In the case of boys the seminal glands begin to work, semen is produced and there are night- emissions, which horrify the ignorant adolescent. He develops attraction towards the opposite sex. There is a re-awakening of the repressed sexual impulse which lay dormant in later childhood.
Among girls, the sex-development takes the form of development of breasts, changes in pelvic area, development of uterine region and menstruation. All girls become self-conscious about this type of change. Menstruation usually becomes a disturbing and sometimes horrifying experience.
Even the boys feel ashamed in diffidence and prudery, when they experience localised sensations in genital organs and observe night- emissions. Sex-development is equally disturbing to both boys and girls. ‘Many adolescents, nor understanding in the least what is happening to them, suffer agonies thinking that they are lost souls or abnormal or diseased.’
c. Mental Development:
Intelligence grows at a uniform rates during late childhood. Recent mental testing has displayed that at the beginning of puberty there is a general decline in the rate of growth of general intelligence. But the intelligence reaches its maximum limit by the end of this period. Herein also there are individual differences.
Some children reach the maximum limit a bit earlier, and some continue to develop later than the average. Some studies have revealed that children who reach puberty earlier are slightly more intelligent than others. Usually interior types reach the ultimate mental maturity earlier than the rest.
(ii) Reasoning and Abstract Thinking:
Infancy is the period of sense- perception, late childhood of memorisation and accumulation of experience. But adolescence is the period of logical thinking, reasoning and abstractions. The adolescent can concentrate for a longer time, and there is increase in his powers to lean and remember.
(iii) Widening of Interests:
Adolescent psychology has revealed that interests of both boys and girls widen to a great degree. Boys love reading and writing. They begin to take interest in scientific pursuits. Some develop definite interest in varied educational courses like agriculture, commerce, technology. This is revealed through their hobbies and activities.
Girls become interested in fine arts, music, dancing, painting and home science. The general interest of the adolescents is outward to the worlds of nature, men and things. In words of James S. Ross, “fantasies fade and reality is faced. The young man of eighteen is a man of the world pre-occupied with practical problems, and proud of his knowledge of affairs and his practical efficiency. He chooses a career, which is frequently that of his earlier hero, and gradually pursues his way to complete manhood.” Here in this period lies the need for educational and vocational guidance.
d. Emotional Development:
(i) Heightening of emotions:
Adolescence is the period of heightening of all emotions, whether expansive or inhibitive. The heightening is again characterised by high degree of instability. The adolescent has extreme emotions. Sometimes he is hilarious; but on the occasions he is extremely melancholy. He may develop morbid fears, inferiority complex and brooding nature. He falls prey to extreme moods of depression, shyness and secretiveness. He is sensitive to criticism, and is too much conscious about sex.
The changes in the organs lead to curiosity and repressed feelings of disgust and alarm. In words of Ross, “the adolescent lives an intensely emotional life, in which we can see once more the rhythm of positive and negative phases of behaviour in his constant alternation between intense excitement and deep depression “.
(ii) Dependence and Independence:
The adolescent harbours sometimes an attitude of dependence. The dependence however, is not necessarily on the parents, but on heroes found in real life, in history, or in literature.’ It is through this attitude that religious idea dawns in him, and he begins to take interest in religion, religious heroes and Father in heaven. But along with this attitude of dependence he has a spirit of independence.
He flouts the authority of parents when unreasonable. He does not tolerate the over strictness of the parents and the teachers. He wants freedom of self-expression and self-determination. What is exactly needed is a sort of balance between control and freedom. Any extremity of both is dangerous.
(iii) Special feelings:
Strange special feelings capture the minds of adolescents. Self-consciousness gives rise to pride and humility. Sex- consciousness raises the feelings of curiosity, secretiveness and guilt. Boys commit masturbation and they think they have committed a sin. Pugnacity is also common among boys and self-display among girls.
Exhibitionism through dress, manner, gesticulations and talk is a natural phase in adolescence, more prominent in girls. In India, college girl will naturally try to imitate the fresh fashions exhibited by heroines in the pictures. Attraction towards the opposite sex gives rise to desire to be in the company of the opposite sex and to converse with them.
A college girl must have a film-star of her choice, and so a boy must have a heroine of his choice. They will never feel tired of discussing their favourite stars. All this may appear to be abnormal for the adult, but it is perfectly in keeping with the period of life.
(iv) Other feelings:
An adolescent wants security. Again, he develops a spirit of criticism. A strong curiosity impels him to start questioning the why and wherefore of things. He indulges in hero-worshipping. He loves adventure, travel and wandering. He has a strong group-feeling. Again, he has a strong imagination. But herein he may falter, and become egocentric and introverted. Many adolescents tend to live in realms of fantasy. But such introversion is harmful.
e. Social Development:
The gregarious instinct plays an important role in this period. The adolescent has long forsaken the interest in the family. He is more interested in the contemporaries and close associates. He continues to be a member of a gang or group. He tries to grow independent of parents and falls in line with the activities of the group in the school and outside the school.
Empathy is a new development at this stage. The adolescent acquires an ability to value and understand the feelings of others, especially his associates. Sometimes he acts blindly after the suggestion and imitation of his fellow-mates. The cause of strikes and demonstrations by the adolescent youth is this inherent tendency.
Unless wisely directed, the young can go blind and run amuck. A slight provocation is enough to make the adolescents assemble in protest, and to widen the size of the protesting group due to Empathy. A strike at Lucknow may start chain of strikes at all the places in the country.
f. Moral Development:
(i) Religious Consciousness:
Religiousness consciously dawns at this stage, and the adolescent takes interest in philosophy behind religion and life with an attitude of curiosity and scepticism. He may find solution of his mental problems in his attitude of dependence upon a higher religious hero, god, goddess or prophet. Sometimes his scientific approach conflicts with the narrow theological dogmas. An Indian adolescent cannot be expected to have belief in the Pauranoic mythology that conflicts with scientific facts known at present.
He can therefore be drawn only to the higher philosophy and spirituality. The narrow religious dogmas, ceremonies and conventions have no worth for him. He may devote himself to the pursuit of truth in the realm of science and philosophy, or of beauty in art. He will love religious heroes, find inseparable interest in reading their biographies and feel drawn to altruistic career.
At this stage, ideas of social service and altruism are formed and cherished. If properly guided, the adolescent youth harbours a genuine love for mankind, and he is enthusiastic about service to the needle. He desires to help in the creation of an ideal society. The contribution of adolescent youth in the independence movement was no mean. Nor did they fail in their duty during the recent Chinese Aggression and conflict with Pakistan.
They rose of the occasion and spent their energies in civil defence, collecting contributions and serving the Jawans. The adolescent of today is socially and politically wide awake. He takes keen interest in the social and political events. He thatches his wagon to a star, and is, by his very nature, a reformer.
(iii) Inconsistency of Conduct:
Inspite of the above qualities, the adolescent’s moral conduct is unpredictable at the beginning of the beginning of the period. The stresses and strains inherent in this period, disturb his mental equilibrium. He may lose self-control. He has still to learn self-control especially with regard to sex-instinct.
Unguided or misdirected many an adolescent and degenerates and sports his physical and mental health through acts of sexuality like masturbation and intercourse. Such problems have been increasingly observed in co-educational secondary schools. But proper guidance and suitable environment tend to lead the youth to constructive acts.
He can achieve self-control and build in his mind a set of ideals. His hero- worship can result in sentiment of love for moral qualities of the hero. He forms strong sentiments, and gradually he consolidates his self in something stable and permanent. At times, he is guided by social approval or disapproval.
But here also he needs help to be guided by his ideals. He can increase his will power by which he can control his base impulses, rise above the social approval and act according to his will. This is the highest stage of moral conduct is reached when behaviour is directed by ideals rather than by social praise or blame. There are few who dare to follow the light that is in them, regardless of social consequences, but these few are the salt of the earth.
g. Special Needs of Adolescent:
The various needs of adolescent which impel him to act in various directions are discussed below. In the absence of fulfillment of these, he remains maladjusted and a problem youth.
What is needed, therefore, is a clear understanding of his special needs:
Sex is the fundamental fact of adolescence. The sexual instinct which was dormant till now, and which took the shape of auto-eroticism in the infancy, and homo-sexualism during late childhood, takes a strong turn and develops into hetero-sexuality wherein the object of attachment becomes the opposite sex.
Curiosity about sex, sex-consciousness, consciousness about the biological changes going on in the body (like menstruation and emission) – all this pervades the mental horizontal of the adolescent. He needs curiosity to be satisfied. Sometimes in the advent of satisfaction of sex-curiosity, from the pure point of view of adventure and thrill, the adolescent boy or girl may commit an intercourse and repent afterwards with shame and remorse.
Sex- education, is therefore, essential at this stage. The adolescent needs private instruction from the adult or from the teacher, in a scientific manner, so that he gets a clear picture of the entire phenomenon, and has a clear understanding of the real purpose of sex in adult life.
During the ancient period of India’s history, there were rigid rule regarding celibacy and studentship in Gurukulas and Ashramas. Co-education was not favoured and the adolescent was mostly kept away from the scene. But now-a- days, the social environment which is strongly charged with sex and beauty (with the vulgar scenes in movies, vulgar posters, advertisements with sex- appeal, sex-stimulating fashions of dress, exhibitionism among girls and women, erotic songs and above all lack of vigilance by the adults) acts as a stimulating agent, and its influence needs to be counterbalanced by a deliberate plan and programme of sex-educational institutions for boys and girls. Sex cannot be avoided.
It is simply to be redirected and sublimated. In words of Slaughter “Like the overflow of a great river, it irrigates and fertilizers great tracts of life’s territory”. Then how to redirect its energies into useful channels? An organised programme of games and athletics in which every adolescent participates will redirect his surplus energy, and keep him side-tracked from sex. Similarly a network of co-curricular activities should keep the adolescent mind engaged, because sex is not only a physical problem but also a mental problem. Sex can also be sublimated to creative activities in the realm of painting, music, dance, flower-gardening and decorations.
(ii) Security Need:
As explained above, an adolescent has an attitude of dependence. He, therefore, wants to belong to a group. He wants attention and affection from the elders. He wants inspiration from a hero, whom he worships, and who can guide him. This need can be fulfilled if the adolescent is given opportunity of studying the biography of great men like Gandhi, Nehru, Tagore, Vivekananda, Dayananda, Laxmibai, Sarojini Naidu, Jagdish Chander Bose, Ishwar Chander Vidya Sagar, Tilak, Gokhle, Lajpat Rai, Kabir, Nanak, Tulsi, Surdar, Rana Pratap etc. He will derive strength and inspiration from them, imbibe ideals, formulate his life-goal and strengthen his will and character.
(iii) Gregarious Need:
As discussed above, this instinct assumes greater strength and importance at this age. If misdirected, this impulse directs him to be a member of gangs of pick-pockets, cinema-goers, truants and vagabonds, who do unsocial acts. The strikes, the organised, indiscipline in schools and colleges is because of lack of proper direction and due to satisfaction of this need. The adolescents should be enabled to satisfy this need through such group formation as scouting, girl-guiding, N.C.C. club-membership, social- service squads, civil defence and community activities.
(iv) Adventure Need:
This thirst for adventure is strong at this age. In the absence of proper direction it takes the form of aimless wandering, vagabonding, unsocial acts like strikes and demonstrations. Even the sexual acts mean a thrill and adventure for them. But properly directed, love of adventure can take the form of hiking, excursion, educational tours, social service and scientific exploration.
(v) Social Approval:
In all acts, an adolescent wants recognition, may be in the form of praise, a prize, a cheer, an applause, a gift or a reward. He is ambitious of achieving success and getting public applause. From this point of view, the system of giving prizes, rewards and other forms of recognition have an educational value, in consonance with the psychological needs of the adolescent.
h. Special Problems of Adolescents:
The special problems of adolescent have already figured during the discussion about the physical, emotional and social development. The first and the foremost problem is the problem of sex. The period of adolescence is known as a period of stresses and strains. It is the most difficult and the awkward period. The period marks the re-awakening of repressed sex-impulse. In order to help him, an attitude of sympathetic understanding is needed. An urgent need of sex-education has been long felt. Silence and hush-hush policy is dangerous and harmful.
Next comes his emotional problems. The abnormal functioning of the nervous system and the endocrine glands are mainly responsible for it. He has got extreme emotions – frustration and triumph, alternating each other. What is required is to help him in emotional control. The introduction of music, art and co-curricular activities will provide catharsis and reduce emotional tension in him.
Sublimation of emotions is the right guidance. His various needs must be satisfied and guided properly. He must have security. He must get social approval. He must have an opportunity to explore new fields. Thirdly he faces problems of social adjustment. An adolescent, sometimes, cannot adjust himself to the conditions at home, school or society. His parents impose rigid restrictions which are against his nature.
He may not get sympathetic treatment from his teachers. He may have academic problems. He may not be able to pull on with his class-fellows. Even a bright child is not at home in the company of mediocres. A rigid discipline, an over-crowding, an unhealthy atmosphere, lack of activities in the school may create problems of adjustment. This tension can be resolved only when the environment is made congenial. It is the duty of the parents to understand his problems and help him in the adjustment at home.
Adolescent and the Teacher:
A teacher can help the adolescent to overcome his special problems, pass through this critical period smoothly and to adjust himself to the environment.
For this, the following suggestions are made:
1. The teacher should make a thorough understanding of the general characteristics of the period of adolescence, its stresses and strains, urges and carvings changes and problems.
2. He should have a sympathetic attitude towards him.
3. He should set a good example of good conduct himself, and display his own emotional stability.
4. He should impart right information about sex.
5. He should redirect the energies of the adolescents to fruitful channels through sports and activities.
6. He should afford some freedom in organising and planning. He should not impose unreasonable restrictions. He should not force adult standards and curb his self-expression.
7. He should give applause and recognition to the achievements of the adolescent.
8. He should provide a variety of curriculum, in accordance with the diverse aptitudes. There should be special provision of music, art and dance for girls. A network of hobbies must be provided to cater to diverse interests.
9. Educational and vocational guidance should be provided.
10. Some programme of moral and religious teaching, accompanied by social service should be organised in the school.
11. Adolescent should be helped to control his emotions.
12. Patriotism, nationalism, citizenship and self-sacrifice are some of the essential ideals that must be fostered in them.
13. Some freedom should be given to them, in all matters like selection of courses, selection of games and hobbies, and the daily mode of work. Adult standards should not be thrust on him.
14. Practical bias must be given to the curriculum. Work-experience and scientific enquiry are in consonance with adolescent psychology.
15. The Hadow Committee Report in England sums up the above task so beautifully.
“There is a tide which begins to rise in the veins of youth at the age of eleven or twelve. It is called by the name of adolescence. If that tide can be taken at the flood, and a new voyage begin in the strength and along the flow of its current, we think that it will move on to fortune.”