Development of Personality due to Social Conditioning:
Growth of personality of the members of the society depends upon social conditioning which further depends upon social cultural factors. Of course, personality is not a mere reflection of the culture, the factor of individual difference is there which brings some difference among persons although the culture is same.
Society and culture play a tremendous role in stimulating and reducing aggression. Thus, depending upon the socio cultural conditioning, personality make up will vary. Similarly, the child is conditioned to love and affection which he learns from the mother and other members of the society. Moral controls are also imposed on the child by social conditioning.
The super ego or the conscience of the child is built up out of these moral habits and values. Thus, the major forces of culture influence the child who grows from babyhood to manhood. There is a constant interaction between the society, culture and the individual. Social conditioning takes place out of this constant and continuous interaction.
Examples of some of the cultures may be considered to show the effect of social conditioning on the development of personality.
At the outset, in Balinese culture the training to the child are easy and punishment is mild. But, subsequently, the child is teased with avoidance, rejection and negativism. Obviously, the reactions to such frustrations are crying and tempertantrum. As the child grows to a human adult, he becomes dreamy, dissociated and anger is never expressed overtly. Such children show sleep like responses to the world around them.
It is, therefore, clear that Balinese people develop a dissociated personality because of social conditioning and early training. The process of socialization mostly based on social conditioning shape different personality patterns.
The following characteristics of different primitive cultures depend upon socio-cultural conditioning as pointed out by Margaret Mead.
(i) Arapes Tribe:
Strong affection, dependence upon family members, free relation with opposite sex, absence of conflict, good cooperation with relatives and friends, little stress on leadership, irregular and no rigid training, less aggressive and more docile characteristics are found among the members of the Arapes tribe.
In this tribe father-son affection is strong, people are not educated, but stealing, lying etc. are rarely found. No emphasis is given on mastery, achievement or determination to do a work.
(ii) Mundugamore Tribes:
Conflict between men and women for power and prestige, less affection between two sexes but more dominancy are the chief characteristics of Mundugamor Tribes. Cooperation is less but conflict to more found among different members.
Severe rejection and indifference is shown towards the child. Sibling, zealously and father son hostility and hostility between elders and younger is more prominent. Conflict between husband and wife is also too prominent. Little parent-child love, more jealousy and quarrel, severe punishment to children, strong sense of possessiveness colour the personality of Mundugamorer people. Virginity is attached great value.
In this tribe, women are very aggressive and rule men. Men being submissive attend to art, literature and ceremonies. Care of small children and babies is taken by men. Men are timid, shy and inferior to women. Man depends upon women for economic support and affection.
Men being afraid of women never become straight forward and upright but usually learn to backbite. Aggression of men towards women is disguised in suspicion towards women. Mothers are affectionate towards sons and control on the child is severe. Women are aggressive, efficient and tolerant of males. Practically, women rule men here.