Why a Nurse should have proper knowledge about Psychology of Challenged, Women and Sick People ! – Answered!
Psychology deals with the behaviour of individuals. At the same time psychology of people also differ from one individual to another.
Understanding the behaviour of certain groups of people is very important from the point of view of nursing, because these people are different from other common folk.
These are the individuals more vulnerable for problems. The knowledge of psychology of these people will help nurses to deal with them in an effective way by extending appropriate nursing care.
Psychology of such vulnerable individuals is explained here under:
This group of children includes both physically and mentally challenged. Physically challenged children are those having physical abnormality.
They could be broadly classified into 2 groups:
(a) Motor disabilities,
(b) Sensory disabilities.
Children with motor disabilities are orthopedically handicapped, having physical defect or deformity that causes interference with the normal functioning of the bones, joints and muscles.
Children with sensory disabilities will have handicaps such as blindness, mutism and deafness. These defects pose severe problems to children. Defects in eye and ear at early stage may lead to poor development of intelligence due to lack of stimulation. Nowadays disabled are called as ‘differentially abled’ to avoid stigma.
Psychologically these physically challenged may show many maladaptive reactions such as self-pity, stubbornness, shyness, refusal to use prosthetic devices, inferiority feelings, demanding extra attention, using handicap as an excuse, feeling of helplessness, jealousy/sibling rivalry, negative emotions like anxiety and depression. Children sometimes blame themselves or their parents for their problems.
Such children need to be counselled to accept their disability to handle the negative emotions. Getting them involved in support group, developing positive attitude towards prosthetic device is essential. Remedial teaching or training may be necessary to overcome weaknesses.
Children will have to be taught effective conflict resolution skills and social skills. Confidence building will help them overcome feelings of inferiority and shyness.
Mentally challenged is the term used in place of mentally retarded. Mentally challenged children are those with subnormal level of intelligence. They will have low power of thinking, reasoning, learning and understanding.
They will have limited interests and aptitudes but no creativity. Usually the children having below 70 IQ level are considered mentally challenged.
It will be appropriate to consider the treatment or remedial measures for the adjustment, rehabilitation and education of the mentally retarded.
Psychological treatment in the form of individual and group therapy is found to be useful. Children can be helped in solving problems of emotional and social adjustment and resolving their mental conflicts through psychological measures.
It is very important that, parents be given training to take proper care of such children. Provisions may be made for special education and training.
Education and employment of women have “brought several changes. Legislations have altered rights of women in terms of inheritance, opportunities and rights have radically altered roles of women. Though there is a gap between what is legally possible, and the reality, there are signs of change.
Women’s total dependence on men has decreased. Men are yet to accept these changes in role relationships. Even women may find it difficult to adjust to new roles. But still in country like India where traditions are dominating the lifestyle of people, the gender differences and stereotypes are continuing. Women are considered as homemakers and nurturers.
They are treated as different both biologically and psychologically. They are expected to be passive, submissive and dependent. All these things have created a different women psychology. She may not be expressing her feelings, emotions, needs and other things so openly like men.
There are intrinsic differences between males and females based on their genes or reproductive physiology, which confer differential risks of morbidity.
The main health problems of women are identified as high maternal mortality, maternal morbidity, and low life expectancy at birth, menstrual and mental disorders, a high suicide rate and malnutrition. This situation is to a great extent the result of family structure and the relatively low socioeconomic status, discrimination and disregard of female health even during illness.
Timely care is often denied, symptoms are not given their due recognition and prevention measures are rarely taken. It may be because men are considered the bread winners and their loss would have more catastrophic effects for the family and society as a whole when compared to women who play the supportive and secondary role.
This is truer in Indian culture and society. Hence, it is very important for the nurses to keep in mind all these aspects while dealing with women patients and try to understand them. Then only they can help them in a most needed way.
These are the persons where nurses are regularly coming in contact with. Sickness may be biological or psychological. The people suffering from sickness are definitely different from normal people.
They will have their own problems. Patients suffering from physical diseases will have a lot of anxiety, worry, tensions, doubts about their disease, quality of treatment, cost of treatment and improvement in conditions.
Similarly patients with psychological disorders whether the disease is of mild or of severe nature; need sympathy, warmth, concern of nurses. These things will help them a lot in forgetting their worries and to get early cure and relief.