Learn about the comparison between classical and operant conditioning.
Comparison # Classical Conditioning:
1. It was formulated by a Russian psychologist namely Pavlov.
2. Pavlov conducted experiments on dogs.
3. It is called Pavlovian or type-1 learning (respondent).
4. In classical conditioning, the occurrence of conditioned response is forced reflectively by unconditioned stimulus.
5. The unconditioned stimulus occurs irrespective of subject’s behaviour.
6. Classical conditioning is preparatory or anticipatory response. It is also called signal learning.
7. The law of contiguity is the basis of association between stimulus- response (S.R.).
8. Automatic nervous system in the organism is the controlling authority.
9. There is pairing of un-conditioned stimulus and conditioned stimulus.
10. Bondage between specific unconditioned stimulus and conditioned stimulus is established.
11. Reinforcement takes the first place in the Pavlov’s experiment as food is presented first to elicit the response.
12. Conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus can be placed in different temporal sequences. Close contiguity is followed.
13. In classical conditioning, focus is on the single stimulus response bondage.
14. Regardless of the occurrence of conditioned response, we present the unconditioned stimulus.
15. Classical conditioning presents different pictures of behaviour and learning in which an arbitrary stimulus is associated with a specific elicitable response.
Comparison # Operant Conditioning:
1. It was formulated by an American psychologist Skinner.
2. Skinner conducted experiments on rats and pigeons.
3. It is called Skinnerian or type-2 learning (operant).
4. Response is more spontaneous and voluntary in operant conditioning.
5. The reward is contingent upon the occurrences of response.
6. Operant conditioning serves mainly to stress or guide the learner that already has certain responses available.
7. The law of effect is the basis of association between stimulus-response (S.R.).
8. Central nervous system in the organism is the controlling authority.
9. There is the pairing of a response and the reinforcing stimulus which follows. There is no pairing of unconditioned stimulus and; conditioned stimulus.
10. Tendency to respond in a specific manner is developed.
11. Reinforcement comes after the response is made by the organism.
12. Close contiguity is followed and response stimulus chain is formed.
13. Operant conditioning is concerned with the sequences of responses. A chain of responses is formed leading to the desired goal.
14. Stimulus is presented only if the organism makes the desired response.
15. The operant conditioning deals with the differentiation and discrimination of a sequence out of a mass behaviour emitted in response to a complex stimulus field.