In this article we will discuss about:- 1. Definitions of Evaluation 2. Forms of Evaluation 3. Methods 4. Tools 5. Purpose 6. Process 7. Functions.
Definitions of Evaluation:
The word ‘evaluation’ refers to the act or process of determining the value of something. The data are all measurements until we assign a degree of quality to them. When we do so, we make an evaluation.
Evaluation is a process of delineating, obtaining and providing useful information for judging decision alternatives. Evaluation is a systematic process of determining the extent to which educational objectives are achieved by pupils. Evaluation includes both qualitative and quantitative plus value judgments concerning the desirability of that behaviour.
Evaluation is the Process of Determining:
a. The extent to which an objective is realized at the curriculum.
b. The effectiveness of the learning experience provided at the classroom.
c. How well the goals of education have been accomplished by the curriculum.
Real evaluation encompasses much more than measurement and rating, although they play a part with maturity as the ‘intention’.
Evaluation from our perspective becomes a broad process and differs in three significant respects from the narrower conception:
1. Measurement and rating take an analytic and diagnostic function rather than a punishment and reward function.
Evaluation is no longer a judgment upon the child, it is an illumination of his strength and weakness, his loss and gains so that:
a. The child may use the findings to improve his learning’s and grow.
b. The teacher may use what he sees to improve the handling of the learning. In this sense evaluation becomes an integral part of the learning process.
2. Evaluation can no longer be a final process marking a conclusion. It takes place continuously as part of the learning.
3. Evaluation takes place always in relation to the goal of reaching maturity. The clearer the goal, the more effective the evaluation.
With these concepts of evaluation, there is much more emphasis on planning:
a. To making a plan
b. To knowing exactly what the short-range goals are for each planned.
Forms of Evaluation:
1. Individual evaluation:
It is necessary to evaluate his own progress to help the progress of the group when this evaluation is made against his own capacities and accomplishments rather than in comparison with some already established norms, the individual gains more profit.
2. Teacher evaluation:
In an evaluation of learning, not only the child is evaluated but, the teacher. The teacher’s behaviour does affect how pupils learn. His personality, his ways of handling children, his ways of instructing; all enter into learning process.
3. Administration evaluation:
It is the job of the school administration to help society understand the schools and to attempt to bring educational thinking and public thinking together. Because of this the administration bears the brunt of society’s scrutiny and must answer for the performance of individual teachers, this gives added impetus to the administrator’s regular evaluation of each teacher.
Methods of Evaluation:
1. Formative evaluation:
Formative evaluation is one that is carried out during the process of curriculum planning. The evaluation results provide useful information for correcting the flaws detected in the curriculum and for modifying the programme elements.
2. Summative evaluation:
Summative evaluation is one which is carried out after offering the curriculum once or twice. It may be useful for the specification of the optional conditions for usage and for overall modification and improvement of the curriculum.
Tools of Evaluation:
1. Standardized tests:
Standardized tests include tests for intelligence, achievement, personality, study skills, aptitude and interest. These have been developed scientifically by psychologists and educators after long experimentation.
In this type of tests, interpretation are all fixed or standardized or a particular age group or grade with the help of some statistical technique. So that precisely the same test may be given to the students of that age group at different times and places.
2. Achievement tests:
Generally fall into two categories:
a. Level of achievement tests show at what level a student is able to function in a variety of subjects and skills. A teacher would use this type of test at the beginning of the year to assess the range of achievement in his class so that he may screen the class into working groups.
b. Qualitative achievement tests—once the teacher has determined range of achievement, he will find these tests helpful to show the breadth and depth of each child’s understandings and skills in a particular subject.
Other Important Tools of Evaluation:
1. Check lists
2. Rating scales
3. Attitude scales
4. Observation schedules
5. Interview schedules
6. Questionnaires containing restricted response and open-ended questions.
Purposes of Evaluation:
1. To determine and understand the level of knowledge and skills of the students, at various times of the learning period.
2. To be aware of the specific difficulties of individual students, or of an entire class, as a basis for further teaching.
3. To identify each student’s strengths and weaknesses and to suggest remedial measures this may be needed.
4. To encourage students learning by measuring their achievements and informing them of their success.
5. To help students to acquire the attitude of and skill in self-evaluation.
6. To help students to become increasingly self-directing in their study.
7. To provide motivation to develop critical thinking to help them to apply principles and to make judgments.
8. To estimate the effectiveness of teaching and learning techniques of subject content.
9. To meet the graduation requirements.
Process of Evaluation:
1. Evaluation is a continuous process.
2. Evaluation is a comprehensive process.
3. Evaluation is a co-operative process.
Functions of Evaluation:
1. To validate the hypothesis upon which the educational institution operates.
2. To identify pupils who are exceptionally gifted on unusually poor in their attainments.
3. To compare the current subject matter achievement of a pupil with miss previous and future achievement in the same field.
4. To estimate a pupil’s potential or aptitude for learning.
5. To evaluate the teaching effectiveness
6. To provide basis for modification of curriculum
7. To make provision for guiding the growth of individual pupils.
8. To diagnose the weakness and strength of the pupils.
9. To pin point the areas where remedy measures may be desirable.
10. To test the efficiency of teachers in providing learning experiences and the effectiveness of instruction and of classroom activities and also to improve instruction.