In this article we will discuss about the types and uses of intelligence tests.
Types of Intelligence Tests:
Intelligence tests may be broadly classified as follows:
1. Individual tests in which only one individual is tested at a time.
2. Group tests in which a group of individuals are tested at the same time. Further, intelligence tests may also be classified on the basis of their forms as verbal or language tests and non-verbal or non-language tests.
Verbal or Language Tests:
In these the subjects make use of language in which the instructions are given in words, written, oral or both the individuals being tested are required to use language, verbal or written, for their responses.
The test content is designed with verbal material which may include varieties of items like:
a. Vocabulary tests:
In these the subject is required to give the meanings of words or phrases.
b. Memory tests:
These are designed to test the subjects immediate and long-term memory and include all recall and recognition type of items like telephone number, vehicle number, teachers, names, etc.
c. Comprehension tests:
By means of these, the subject is tested for the ability to grasp, understand and react to a given situation.
d. Information tests:
The subject is tested on his knowledge about the things around him by means of these tests.
e. Reasoning tests:
In these tests the subject is asked to provide answers which demonstrate his ability to reason logically, analytically, systematically, inductively or deductively as, for example 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 16, 22, 29, ….
f. Association tests:
Through these test items the subject is tested for his ability to point out the similarities or dissimilarities between two or more concepts or objects.
Non-Verbal and Non-Language Tests:
These tests involve activities in which the use of language is not necessary. Performance tests are the typical examples for these type of tests. Here the individual is tested through material objects, where he is instructed orally and the reactions of the person is assessed with respect to the individual’s approach towards the work. Then needed directions are provided to him.
Individual Verbal Intelligence Tests:
Tests involving the use of language are administered to one individual at a time, e.g. the Stanford Binet scale, individual performance tests, Arthur point scale, Bhatia’s battery of performance test.
Group Verbal Intelligence Tests:
The tests which necessitate the use of language and are applied to a group of individuals at a time. For example,
1. Army alpha test (developed during World War I)
2. Army general classification Test (World War II).
Popular Indian tests of this nature are:
a. Group tests of intelligence prepared by Bureau of Psychology, Allahabad (Hindi).
b. Samuhik Budhi Pariksha (Hindi) prepared by PL Shrimali, Vidya Bhavan GS Teacher College, Udaipur.
Group Non-Verbal Intelligence Tests:
These tests do not necessitate the use of language and are applicable to a group of individuals at a time. The difference between performance tests (used for an individual) and non-verbal tests (used for a group) is one of the degree as far as their non-verbal nature is concerned.
The individual performance tests require the manipulation by the subject of concrete objects or materials supplied in the test. The responses are purely motor in character and seldom requires the use of paper and pencil by the testee.
Uses of Intelligence Tests:
a. Use in selection:
Results of intelligence tests can be used for selection of suitable candidates for training in educational and professional skills such as admission to special courses, selection of the trainees, etc.
b. Use in classification:
Intelligence tests help in classifying individuals according to their mental makeup, e.g. in schools, teachers responsibility is to classify the students in his class as backward, average, bright or gifted, and thus arrange for homogenous grouping to provide proper educational opportunities.
c. Use in assessment for promotion:
The results of intelligence tests along with the achievement tests can be successfully used for promotion of students to the next higher grades of classes.
d. Use in provision of guidance:
The results of intelligence tests may be successfully used in providing training to teachers and for personnel guidance.
e. Use for improving the learning process:
Results of the intelligence testing may prove helpful to teachers to plan the teaching-learning skills.
f. Use for diagnosis:
The other use relates with its capacity to diagnose, distinguish and discriminate the differences in the mental functioning of individuals.
g. Use in research work:
The intelligence tests can be used in carrying out research in the field of education, psychology and sociology with different age groups for generalization.