Read this essay to learn about Education. After reading this essay you will learn about:- 1. Meaning of Education 2. Important Definitions of Education by Various Personalities 3. Nature 4. Scope 5. Individual Aims and its Criticism 6. Social Aim 7. Vocational Aim 8. Democratic Aim 9. Types 10. Functions 11. Instrument of Social Change 12. Role in Social Mobility 13. International Understanding and Other Details.
- Essay on the Meaning of Education
- Essay on the Important Definitions of Education by Various Personalities
- Essay on the Nature of Education
- Essay on the Scope of Education
- Essay on the Individual Aims of Education and its Criticism
- Essay on the Social Aim of Education
- Essay on the Vocational Aim of Education in India
- Essay on the Democratic Aim of Education in India
- Essay on the Types of Education
- Essay on the Functions of Education
- Essay on Education as an Instrument of Social Change
- Essay on the Role of Education in Social Mobility
- Essay on Education for International Understanding
- Essay on the Importance of Education for Human Resource Development
- Essay on the Problems of Education of Backward Classes with its Measures
1. Essay on the Meaning of Education:
Human life is the best creation of God. It has got two aspects like the biological and the sociological or cultural aspects. The biological aspect is maintained by food and reproduction but the sociological aspect is preserved and transmitted by education.
As man is in the apex of the animal world, he tries to seek new ideas and new ways of life through education. It is possible as man is blessed with intelligence, conscience and wisdom. All the powers, prosperity and progress achieved by the human being are the outcome of education.
Education is as old as the human-race itself. It is an ever-changing, ever-expanding and a dynamic concept. It’s meaning changes from time to time, from country to country and from person to person. It is interpreted from the persons own background and ideals. It is, therefore, rightly said that last word on education will never be said. Education deals with ever-growing man in an ever-growing society. Its concept, therefore, can never be static.
Etymologically, the term ‘Education’ is traced to different sources of derivation. Education originated from the Latin word ‘educare’ which means “to bring up” or “to nourish”. In other words, it means that the child is to be brought up according to certain aims and end is in view. There is another derivation from the Latin word ‘educere’ which means ‘lo lead out’ or ‘to draw out’ ‘E’ means ‘out’ and ‘DUCO’ means ‘from inside’ and “to lead” or “bring out” respectively.
According to this view, the main purpose of education is ‘to lead’ or ‘to draw out’ rather than ‘to put in’. There is yet another view according to which the term ‘education’ comes from the Latin word ‘educatum’ which means ‘the act of teaching’ of training. So education is the process of developing and enhancing and enhancing innate abilities and cultivation of various physical, mental, moral and spiritual powers of the individual.
Synonyms of Education:
A number of synonyms of education may be highlighted here, In Sanskrit the word ‘Shiksha’ has been derived from “Shiksh” which means learning or teaching. This also gives out the meaning “the process of learning” and “the function of teaching” which are individual in education.
Similarly the word ‘Vidya’ is derived from the Sanskrit verbal root ‘vid’ which means ‘to know’. Vidya is thus the subject matter of knowledge. The word ‘pedagogy’ is sometimes used for education. This word can be decomposed as ‘paides’- ‘boy’ + ‘a-gein’ – ‘to lead’. The two Greek words thus connote ‘to lead the boy’. Thus Pedagogy is the science of instruction for the purposes of leading the pupils.
Narrow and Broad Meanings of Education:
In the narrow sense, education is often used and it is imparted at a specific place, may be school or college or university, by a specific set of persons called teachers, at a specific time, with a specific curriculum and so on.
In this regard T. Raymont says “In the narrower and more definite sense….. education does not include self-culture and the general influences of one’s surroundings, but only those special influences which are consciously and designedly brought to bear upon the young, by the adult portion of the community, whether through the family, the church or the state”.
The broad meaning of education describes educational process which is broad based. It is a life-long process. Man gains educational experiences from cradle to grave which bring about changes in the behaviour. He gains experiences of a large variety and diversity which are all more or less educative.
In this regard R.C. Lodge has given in his book “Philosophy of Education” a broad interpretation of education; “In the wider sense, experience is said to be educative.
The bite of a mosquito, the taste of watermelon, the experience of falling in love, flying in an aero plane, of being caught in a storm in a small boat all such experiences have a directly educative effect on us…… whatever broadens our horizon, deepens our insight, refines our reactions, and stimulates thought and feeling educates us”.
2. Essay on the Important Definitions of Education by Various Personalities:
As education being an important social activity and process, its meaning have been changing through the ages, due to change in social, physical and mental conditions of individuals. Different educationists, scholars, therefore, interpreted it differently, at different circumstances.
Some of the most popular definitions, given by different educational thinkers are cited here:
“Education is something which makes a man self-reliant and self-less”.
“Education is that whose end-product is salvation”.
“Education means training for the country and love for the nation”.
“Education is the realization of the self”.
“Education is the manifestation of divine perfection, already existing in man”.
“Education is that which makes one’s life in harmony with all existence and thus enables the mind to find the ultimate truth which gives us the wealth of inner light and love and gives significance to life”.
“Education means helping the growing soul to draw out that is in itself”.
“Education is a means for character formation and righteous living”.
“By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body, mind and spirit”.
Indian Education Commission (1964-66):
“Education ought to be related to life, needs and aspirations of the people so as to be a powerful instrument of social, economic and cultural transformation”.
“Education is the capacity to feel pleasure and pain at the right moment”
“Education is the creation of sound mind in a sound body”.
“Education is natural, harmonious and progressive development of man’s innate powers”.
“Education is complete living”.
“Education is the process of living through a continuous .reconstruction of experiences. It is the development of all those capacities in the individual which will enable him to control his environment and fulfill his possibilities”.
3. Essay on the Nature of Education:
There is no end to education and every experience is educational. So the whole human life is education itself and the entire educational process is life itself. After getting an idea about the concept of education, we should know the nature of education.
They are as follows:
(a) Education as Information or Knowledge:
Education is not equal with information or knowledge. Acquisition of knowledge or information is more than education and it is only the foundation for education. Real education needs deeper and higher degree of knowledge and skills.
(b) Education is a Process:
Education is a process by which an individual can be able to solve all his problems in life. It is also an integrating process.
(c) Education as Instruction:
In ancient days education was regarded as instruction and the child was acquiring knowledge only through instruction from his Guru. But the modern concept of education is not limited with the mere instruction. It is more than that. It brings changes in child’s knowledge, understanding, creative skills, critical thinking and attitudes.
(d) Life-long Process:
Education is a life-long process. It is the nature of education which will continue throughout life. It has no end.
(e) Modification of Behaviour:
Education is the modification of behaviour. It is education which will enable to modify the behaviour of an individual.
(f) Education as Teaching:
Sometimes we accept education as teaching. But there are a number of limitations in the word teaching. Education is much wider than teaching. Teaching is confined with classroom but the area of education is vast.
(g) Education is Life:
Whitehead says, “There is only one subject- matter of education and that is life in all its manifestations”. John Dewey says that education is not preparation for life, it is life itself.
4. Essay on the Scope of Education:
With a view to acquiring adequate insight and access to the meaning of education, it is felt imperative to know the extent or range or scope of the subject education. Scope refers to the breadth, range, extent, comprehensiveness and variety of learning experiences.
The term also implies field of activity, operation and application. As education is life itself, hence its scope is very wide. The following subject matter may be included under the scope of education.
Philosophy of Education:
Now it is realized that philosophy and education are related like flower and fragrance. Philosophy determines all the aspects of education like nature of education, curriculum, method of teaching, nature of text-book, role of teacher, evaluation procedure, school organisation etc. and education determines the practical aspects.
It deals with the study of teaching and learning of children. For an effective teacher of the modern world, knowledge of the child has been considered most important than the knowledge of the subject matter. So the teachers should be well equipped with the psychological skills and competencies which are needed for successful guidance and growth of the child in the school.
Sociology of education may be defined briefly as a study of interaction between members of the society, science of society and relation between education and society. It is accepted as a branch of social science which deals with aims of education, methods of teaching, curriculum, administration in relation to socio-political, economic and cultural conditions of the society.
History of Education:
History of education indicates the gradual development of education during different stages of history which determines the system of education according to the changing demands of the society.
Comparative education helps us to change or modify our system of education in the light of the system followed in other countries.
Educational Administration and Supervision:
It determines the types of administration to be followed in the smooth running of an institution. The supervisory functions are concerned with improving the teaching-learning situation of the school.
Problems and Issues of Education:
Education cannot achieve progress unless it studies the problems like universalization, vocationalization of education, non-formal education, environmental education, population education, adult education, development of national system of education, women education etc. and find out their solutions.
Techniques of Teaching:
The success of education depends upon its methods of teaching. The students of education should get themselves acquainted with different techniques of teaching which is coming under the scope of education.
Modern system of education is based on technology. There are many innovations in education like micro-teaching, programmed learning, simulated teaching, computer assisted instruction etc. It has also come under the scope of education. The scope of education is very wide. It is almost limitless. It is as wide as the world and as long as the history of man on this earth.
5. Essay on the Individual Aims of Education and its Criticism:
Explanation of Individual Aims of Education:
Education should aim at the training and development of the individual. His interests and needs should be given more weightage rather preference on other considerations. The individual freedom and dignity, which is the ideals of democracy, should be given priority in the individual aims of education.
It is, therefore, that maximum opportunities should be made available to each individual for realizing his physical, moral, intellectual and spiritual possibilities. The great educators of the world like Rousseau. Pestalozzi, Froebel, T.P. Nunn and many others have been giving greater emphasis on the individual aims of education.
These supporters of individual aims in education advocate that the individual must always remain in front of the picture. The main theme of their philosophy is “individuality is the ideal of life”. From the biological point of view, G. Thompson says, “Education is for the individual; its function being to enable the individual to survive and live out its complete life”.
Education is imparted to preserve the individual life. Community exists for the individual, not the individual for the community. Education is given for the sake of individual, with a view to save him from destruction. “Therefore individual and not society should be the centre of all educational efforts and activities”.
From Naturalistic point of view, Rousseau and T.P. Nunn say that, “the central aim of education is the autonomous development of the individual”.
From the psychological stand point it is said that no two individuals are identical in intellectual capacity and emotional disposition. It is therefore, that a rigid, and a uniform curriculum for a large number of children, is not justified.
Suitable methods, text books etc. should be followed in educational institutions as per the needs and capabilities of each student. Education should aim at developing the innate potentiality and unique individuality of each child according to his nature.
The spiritualists are of the opinion that every individual is a separate entity and responsible for his or her own actions. So the main functions of education should be to lead the individual to self-realization and the realization of higher values in life.
The progressivists are of the opinion that the progress of mankind is due to great individuals, born in different periods of history. For example, Sankaracharya, Buddha, Mahatma Gandhi in India, Lenin in Russia, have had a profound influence on the life of the people. It is only through the activities of such individuals that the world has become a better and a happier place to live in.
The individual aim in its extreme form, is criticized in many grounds.
They are as follows:
i. It Makes a Person Selfish and Self-Centred:
Unrestricted freedom will make the pupil selfish, self-centred and undisciplined. The individuals will do whatever they like which will result conflict and crisis in the society.
ii. It Ignores Socio-Cultural Influence:
The biological idea of “autonomous development of individuality” ignores the influence of socio-cultural environment. It gives undue emphasis on the innate potentialities of the child.
iii. It Hinders the Development of Personality:
An individual can be fit for group life, if his individuality can be transformed into personality. In this regard Rusk says, “The aim of education should not be the development of individuality but the enrichment and exaltation of personality”. Proper development of personality will be possible only in a social environment.
iv. This May Lead to Autocracy:
Individual aim of education develops a feeling of superiority and highhandedness among some exceptional individuals who may develop undesirable behaviour and unhealthy attitudes which leads to autocracy in the society.
6. Essay on the Social Aim of Education:
Man born in the society and lives here from cradle to grave. The society makes man civilized. The state or society alone is the reality and the individual is only “a throb in the social pulse”. The man cannot be isolated from the society.
In the words of Raymont, “The isolated individual is a figment of the imagination”. Ross says, “Individuality is of no value, and personality a meaningless term apart from the social environment in which they are developed and made manifest.”
The supporters of social aim of education demand that the state has absolute control over the lives and destinies of the individuals living in the state or society. As the individuals live in it are not only rational but social and political animals.
According to the social aim of education the individual has to be prepared to behave as an integral part of the society. All his sorrows and sufferings, happiness and joys, aspirations, attitudes and interests are to be controlled and guided by the society. Education in such a state does not maintain faith in discussion and persuasion.
Education of the individual is subordinated to the state authority. An individual gets his education not as a man, but as a citizen. His personality is merged with the state. Education is not the birth right of the individuals.
Superior educational opportunities are given to the few, who can render best service to the state. Academic freedom is beyond imagination. Freedom in the field of education is not the right but a concession of the state.
Academic freedom helps the elite class to increase their social distance from the mass. Education is regarded as the most powerful means of achieving this objective. The supreme dictate of the state is reflected in the curriculum, methods and materials of the state education. Let us now take the examples of some nations in history, who followed social aim of education in its extreme form.
They are as follows:
In Sparta, the immediate aim of education was to prepare soldiers. Severe military training was imparted and moral training was given through the elders. The state itself was the school; which imparted military training to the citizens. Freedom of thought and action were altogether discouraged.
In 20th century, the same picture was seen in the Nazi Germany. Although education was given utmost importance, the curriculum, methods of study and school organisation were all instilled with the philosophy of the idealized state.
Fascism developed as a protest against what it believed to be weakness in the democratic philosophy of education. Their aim of education was not to equalize educational opportunities, but to differentiate them. The most important principles of Fascist education were the identification of the individual with the interest of the state.
In the UK USA and some other western countries the social aim of education takes the form of “social service” and “citizenship training” in education. It means that education should be provided and organised in a broader way for the well-being of the community and success of a democracy.
7. Essay on the Vocational Aim of Education in India:
The parents are so over burdened in their personal affairs, they do not find any time to impart the necessary education and training to their own children in the vocation. As a result of which the educational institutions are to perform this function also, along with imparting general education. Now-a-days it has been included in the school curriculum.
Vocational education can be defined as the specific training for a particular vocation. Education which prepares for a chosen vocation is called vocational education. In other words, “Education designed to develop skills, abilities, understanding, attitudes, work habits and appreciations needed by workers to enter and make progress in employment on a useful and productive basis” can be defined as vocational education.
John Dewey says, “To find out what one is fitted to do and to secure an opportunity to do it, is the key to happiness”. Gandhiji also stressed the importance of working with head and hand together.
R.N. Tagore opined, “A man may be eminent in book learning but his education remains incomplete till he has not learnt to put his hand to good and efficient purpose”. Keeping these views in mind, vocationalisation of education is an important slogan of modern democratic education.
Importance of Vocational Aim:
i. It makes one economically self-sufficient. Vocational education is a great source of self-satisfaction, self-confidence, mental freedom and moral strength. It helps the individual to be economically sound which is one of the factors for successful working of democracy. It reduces frustration among the youth resulting from non-productive education imparted in school.
ii. Vocational education is the only hope of children with lower intelligence. In this regard Thompson says, “For such children there is only one hope, one way to give them self-respecting place in the adult community. They at least should have, after about eleven, a definitely vocational training”.
iii. It is essential for bridging the widening gulf in society, specially in developing countries, where the education of upper classes has been purely literary and that of lower classes mainly vocational.
iv. It has got psychological basis. The child learns more efficiently when he is engaged in purposeful activity which appeals to his instincts and interest, stimulates his observation and develops his thoughts and feelings.
v. It is a purposeful activity. Education with a vocational bias becomes a purposeful activity. Indian Education Commission recommended “Work Experience” as the basis of all education and emphasised the science and technology oriented education.
vi. It provides suitable opportunities for the maximum utilization of the material resources of the country.
vii. It provides experience for the development of dignity of labour.
Lastly, we may conclude that the vocational aim of education cannot be ignored. Our educational system should be able to equip the child with a general ability to adapt himself to the changing conditions of the society due to modern scientific inventions and discoveries as well as advances in the field of technology.
It is, therefore, that no sharp divisions should be made between education for knowledge and education for vocation. A healthy synthesis of the two is the best solution.
8. Essay on the Democratic Aim of Education in India:
In democracy, common man is quite important, because it is he who has to maintain the successful working of the democratic machinery. He must possess certain attitudes and certain qualities, so that he may work usefully and efficiently in active co-operation with others for the establishment and development of true democratic ideas.
Democratic values imply respect for the individuality of each and every person, provision for free expression of opinion and co-operative and collective decision making.
Education should aim at teaching and inculcating democratic values in the children. According to University Education Commission. “Education is the great instrument of social emancipation, by which democracy establishes, maintains and protects the spirit of equality among its members”. Education, therefore, must work for inculcating democratic values among students.
Ross says, “Schools ought to stress the duties and responsibilities of individual citizens. Everywhere there should be a spirit of teamwork, the emphasis should always be laid on community. The true function of a school in a democracy, therefore, is to provide for the enrichment of individual life. It is a prepared environment in which he may best blossom”.
Thus, it is clear that democracy can function properly only if all the members of the community are educated up to a minimum standard. Education in a democracy, therefore, cannot be the monopoly of a few privilege or well-to-do persons. It is a social necessary, a birthright of all individuals. The schools must be run on democratic principles.
The teacher as well as the head of the institution must function in a democratic way. In the modern world, the main aim of education in democratic countries is to produce democratic citizens, who could form their own independent judgment on all kinds of complicated, social, economic and political issues and, to a large extent, decide their own course of action.
Democracy does not exist in the educational institution. It exists in the hearts of men and women. It is therefore, that the main aim of democratic education is the creation of democratic personality through the inculcation of democratic values.
The statement on aims of education for Indian democracy was made by the secondary education commission (1953-54) which is reproduced in brief here under:
(i) Development of Democratic Citizenship:
In a democracy, every individual should possess qualities of discipline, co-operation and tolerance. Every citizen should live and work in co-operation with others.
Democratic citizenship also includes a sense of patriotism, which means love and service of one’s country to the best of one’s cultural and economic advancement of neighbouring countries and also other countries of the world. These qualities arc inculcated in the school.
(ii) Vocational Efficiency:
The successful working of democracy IOC depends upon a high standard of general and vocational education. Education should aim at developing vocational efficiency of young students. In order to achieve this aim, there should be greater emphasis on craft and productive work, diversification of courses, agricultural, technical, commercial and other practical courses.
(iii) Development of Personality:
Democratic education must look to the physical and mental health of the child. It must discover the-talent in g each individual child and then provide proper training and direction for the development of his personality, according to his natural endowment and aptitude.
(iv) Education for Leadership:
Without effective leadership, democracy cannot function properly. Democratic education should provide training in discipline and leadership. For the successful functioning of democracy we require men of broad experience, mature outlook and sound judgement which can be possible through education.
Indian education commission (1964-66) also suggested the following objectives of education in a democracy which are given below:
(i) Education for Increasing Productivity:
The commission suggested that education must be related to productivity in order to increase national income. For this purpose science education, work experience, forward look in work experience, vocationalization of secondary education should be made available in the system of education.
(ii)Education for Social and National Integration:
According to the commission, social and national integration is an important objective of a national system of education which can be strengthened through establishment of common school system, provision of social and national service in the school, development of language policy, promotion of national consciousness, development of international understanding etc.
(iii) Education for Modernisation:
Education should create adequate and competent intelligentsia to meet the needs of the day. It should awaken the curiosity, attitude, interest for accepting modernisation.
(iv) Education for Social, Moral and Spiritual Values:
The commission suggested that the central and state Governments should adopt measures to introduce education in moral, social and spiritual values in all institutions under their control for which these values can be inculcated in the minds of the students from the very beginning stage.
We may conclude that if we wish to impart education in a democratic set up, we must keep the important aims of Indian democracy before us, mould our school curriculum at different stages according to those aims, adopt right type of procedure in the class room and establish self-discipline in our educational institutions.
9. Essay on the Types of Education:
Some of the important types of education are as follows:
(i) Formal Education:
Formal education which is consciously and deliberately planned for the modification of behaviour with a particular end in view. The education which is imparted in schools, colleges and in similar other institutions are the examples of formal education. Formal education is limited to a specific period or state. Education is imparted in a systematic and planned manner.
Formal education is provided according to certain set of rules and regulations. Formal education has a well-defined and systematic curriculum and methods of teaching which are fixed in advance and with clear-cut ends in view. It is given by specially qualified and trained teachers. They are efficient in the art of teaching.
Formal education includes other activities besides curricular activities. It observes strict discipline. As the child goes to a school, he has to be formal and act according to the discipline of that school.
(ii) Informal Education:
Informal education is incidental and spontaneous. It is the type of education which the child gets while moving and living in the community with other persons. Informal education is not pre-planned. The child learns many habits, manners and patterns while living with others in different spheres like home, society, groups etc.
It is not imparted by any specialized agency such as school or college like formal education. It is causal and gained through daily experiences and activities. Informal education is not given according to any fixed time table or through formal means of education.
Informal education would also include all incidental learning that takes place while at work or at play and during travels as well as spontaneous learning through films, radio and television.
(iii) Non-Formal Education:
Non-formal education is one of the recent concept developed after the publication of the report of the international commission on the development of education, entitled “Learning to Be”. The commission feels that in-spite of the vast financial resources being spent on education a majority of people do not get the minimum education.
The commission, therefore, suggests that alternative arrangements should be made for those who cannot attend the formal institution within a stipulated timing. People those who want to continue their education privately in their leisure hours; they can continue it through postal tuition, contact programmes, vacation programmes.
Summer-cum-correspondence courses, broadcasting programmes, television programmes, satellite instructional programmes, programmed lessons and the like. Open University could be started with country-wide enrolment of working class, who can continue their study at leisure and appear at examination of the university.
Important objectives of non-formal education:
The following are some of the important objectives of non-formal education:
a. To motivate the drop outs to come to the fold of education.
b. To make the people efficient in the occupation or profession in which they are engaged.
c. To develop functional numeracy in the pupils.
d. To enable the pupils to develop the skill, habits and attitudes necessary for healthy living in the society.
e. To develop scientific attitude among the pupils.
f. To expedite the adult education programme in the country.
g. To enable the drop outs to raise their family income or standard of living.
h. To create an awareness among the female drop outs regarding their social, political and economic rights and responsibilities and to motivate them to take part in different developmental activities.
i. To enable them to utilize their leisure hours effectively.
It is clear from the above facts that non-formal education plays a vital role in solving the problems of drop outs and achieves the goal of universalization of primary education.
10. Essay on the Functions of Education:
Some of the major functions of education are as follows:
i. Individual Development
ii. Transmission of Cultural Heritage
iii. Acquisition of Skills
iv. Acquisition and Generation of Human Values and
v. Social cohesion.
Education performs various functions towards the individual and society. Function actually refers to what education really does.
In this context education makes people doctors, engineers, lawyers, scientists, businessman, politicians and farmers. Functions of education include individual development, conservation, transmission, promotion of culture, acquisition of skills, generation of human values and social cohesion.
Thus function of education is multidimensional within the school system and outside it. Deniel Webster asserts that, “The function of education is to discipline feelings, to control emotions, to stimulate motivations anti to develop religious sentiments”.
i. Individual Development:
Education is a process of growth in which the individual is helped to develop his talents, powers, interests and ambitions. This growth is otherwise known as integrated growth. Bringing all round development of individual such as physical, mental, social, emotional, intellectual, aesthetic, spiritual powers are the functions of education.
Factors like dependence and adaptability are responsible for the growth of the man. For this growth child has to depend on other mature persons and child has to learn a lot of experiences from the family in order to adapt himself in any situations of life.
Following are some individual functions of education:
(a) The function of education helps the child to precede right direction to achieve objectives in life.
(b) The main function of education is to prepare individual for his future life.
(c) The function of education is to bring harmonious development of individual.
(d) The function of education for individual is to provide synthetic knowledge through a natural process.
(e) Education helps individual how to adjust in physical, social and mental environment properly according to his needs.
(f) The function of education is to give emphasis on the development of innate potentialities of individual.
ii. Transmission of Cultural Heritage:
The functions of education gives emphasis on transmission of cultural heritage. Culture is the way of life which determines to modify the human activities. It is a Latin word “Culture” and ‘Colire’. Which means cultivation or refinement as a result of cultivation.
Another words stand for the system of religious belief or worship. E.B. Taylor-Culture as “that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capacities and habits acquired by man as a member of society”.
The ingredient of culture are Literature-drama, poetry, prose, story, philosophy, photography, architecture, painting, pattern of administration and social custom social, family and reciprocal treatment, fine arts, music, commerce, industry, library, theatre, cinema halls, museum, club, school etc.
History of man-kind reveals that culture is preserved, transmitted and promoted from one generation to other generation. Each generation preserves the old and adds something new which is transmitted to new generation.
Culture is transmitted not only one generation to another but also from one group to another, contemporarily or over a number of generations. It is the function of education which transmits culture consciously from place to place, person to person and time to time.
Following are the main points of transmission of culture:
a. Education is a promoter of social and cultural change.
b. Social values and ideas grow with culture.
c. Culture helps to acquire all the inherent qualities from generation to generation. This work is carried out by education.
d. Education is the process of the creation, perpetuation and enhancement of cultural values.
iii. Acquisition of Skills:
Acquisition of skills is one major functions of education. Much emphasis is given on the acquisition of skills and knowledge of individual. The purpose of education is to give knowledge and skill to the children and the children are to use this skill intelligently in life. Skill of learning knowledge enables man to develop his personality. It is the chief instrument for progress of civilization.
Acquisition of skill in life makes man happy and can solve day to day problems. Acquisition of skill is more important in present day status, so as scientific, technological, industrial, economic and political advancements go on. Acquisition of knowledge and skill are the real knowledge by which individual learns values of life, standard of living, adjustment etc.
iv. Acquisition and Generation of Human Values:
Acquisition and generation of human values are important function of education. Values relates to values of human life. Man has unlimited wants. Human values determine to satisfy human wants. The power to satisfy human wants is determined by the value of thing. Perfection theory relates to the protection of life which a man endeavors in his life.
Existence theory believes that human is helpful in existence. In addition to this values are determined by the notions of individuals and also by the circumstances in which they live. Education generates human values related to perfection, self realization, satisfaction, development, integrity and cohesion in order to lead a peaceful life in society.
Education is a part of life. Human values are embodied in educational practice. Education develops a sense of discrimination between bad and good. This discrimination is based on values which are tested practically in educational institutions.
Following are some values of human life:
a. Development of healthy and balanced personality.
b. Generating power to earn livelihood and acquire material prosperity.
c. Development of vocational efficiency.
d. Good citizenship and good character.
e. Well adjustment with environment.
f. Reorganization and reconstruction of experiences.
g. Fulfillment of the needs of man.
h. National integration and national development.
i. Creating leadership quality.
j. Promotion of social efficiency.
k. Cultural values and utilization of leisure.
v. Social Cohesion:
Education brings social cohesion. In-fact education is a process which brings about the development of certain habits, ideals, manual and mental skills, intellectual interests, moral ideas etc. in a child to equip him to be able to face the life in the society. Social change is possible due to education. Education trains individual how to discharge duties in the society as a social being.
It, therefore, responses the responsibility of teaching the ignorant and innocent individuals to the school and other organizations. From the point of view of ability, perfection and capacity, society and education are inter-linked and inter-related.
Successful implementation of educational objectives can’t be feasible if social cohesion; co-operation is not seen in society. It is the functions of education which helps the individual in solving problems of the society.
Education creates such an atmosphere that leads the members of the society to follow the ideals presented by the education. As per the needs and objectives of the society education changes its functions. It is education which helps to establish various moral and spiritual values in the society.
Following are the role of education for social cohesion:
(a) Education helps the presentation of culture and value of the society.
(b) Social cohesion is developed through education because the sense of sociability is created by it.
(c) Education controls the society and maintains discipline in it which eradicates bad tradition and social evils.
(d) It is education which prepares good citizenship making conscious of duties and responsibilities.
11. Essay on Education as an Instrument of Social Change:
Education brings about social change by bringing about changes in our vision, outlooks, attitudes and mind. Change in good which brings progress. Education, therefore, acts as an instrument for social change and social control.
Social Change can be brought by:
i. Students enrolled in private and government educational institutions bring changes in the society by revolting against unlawful, injustice, and untruthful activities of the society.
ii. Educational thinkers/philosophers advocate new theories in changing the society.
iii. Political propaganda through political leaders changes the society for freedom.
iv. Educational institutions and agencies greatly affect social change.
v. Books, magazines, newspapers, motion pictures, radio, television powerfully influence the beliefs, attitudes and practices of, the society.
vi. Aims and objectives of education, curriculum and methods of instruction bring social change.
Indian Society-Social Stratification:
Indian society is a conglomeration of various social groups, occupational groups, religious groups, castes and sections. All these groups and sections of society have influenced education since the very early times and moulded it according to the needs of times. Even today this process of influencing and shaping education is going on continually.
In social stratification education should promote higher social and moral ideals developing desirable habits so that our society is saved from the impending decay and destruction. It is through education alone the great ideal of integral life, emotional integration, unity of diversity, national consciousness and national glory, spiritual realization can be achieved.
Social mobility means the movement of an individual in a social structure. Transformation of social status from lower position to higher position is called social mobility according to desire and efforts that means movement from one status to another. Material change or physical change is not mobility.
According to Sorokin two types of social mobility is seen like Horizontal Social Mobility as well as Vertical Social Mobility. Dimensions of social mobility is seen through occupational ranking, social class, economic (consumption) ranking, power ranking.
This social mobility is followed by certain causes like supply of vacant statuses; inter change of ranks, motivational factors and structural factors etc. Besides this some factors like opportunity structure, demographic structure, economic success, occupational improvement, education. Administration, effects of automation, aspirational level are responsible to affect social mobility.
12. Essay on the Role of Education in Social Mobility:
Education plays a vital role in social mobility. Society gives recognition, position, and prestige to persons living in society. Education strives to achieve higher ideals, obtains higher positions of prestige, formation of good habits and inculcation of permanent values.
Which on the other hand tries to develop ability and capacity in the individual to gain higher status, position of prestige and promotes effective social mobility.
The following lines throw light on the role of education in social mobility:
i. Teachers should get social prestige in their professional positions posting as teachers, lecturers, readers, professors, principals, chairman, deans and vice chancellors but presently teachers have lost their social position due to increasing student strength, low salary, disinterest towards general education, indiscipline. Education should remove all those from social environment.
ii. Education helps students in obtaining social prestige whenever they gain more higher education but this is not feasible due to students rush in educational institutions charging huge amount of money for admission, imbalanced, non coordination of curriculum, giving equal values for all disciplines. So that education should give emphasis on these aspects where students get due prestige from society. In this respect there is intimate relationship between type of curriculum and social mobility.
iii. Higher learning and research work brings greater social mobility.
iv. Colleges/universities having high reputation in academic achievement creates more social mobility than other institutions.
v. Education brings whole some development of individual personality, growth of social efficiency, promotion of national solidarity, stability welfare and happiness through social mobility.
13. Essay on Education for International Understanding:
The old traditions and glorious culture of India are always cosmopolitan and seek universal friendship and brotherhood based on mutual love, sympathy and understanding. The values like mutual toleration, liberal out-look, human sympathy and compassion are the life-blood of the Indian heritage which is conducive to international understanding and universal brotherhood.
International understanding implies mutual understanding, faith and respect among the various nations or countries of the world. No country can remain aloof from and unconcerned about other countries. According to Oliver Goldsmith, “Internationalism is a feeling that the individual is not only a member of his state, but a citizen of the world”.
The world membership is conducive to internationalism or international understanding. Dr. Walter H.C. Lewis has said, “International understanding is the ability to observe critically and objectively and appraise the conduct of men everywhere to each other, irrespective of the nationality or culture to which they may belong. To do this, one must be able to detach oneself from one’s own particular culture and national prejudices and to observe means of all nationalities, cultures and races as equally important for varieties of human beings, inhabiting the earth”.
So we have to create a feeling of a “world community” and “world citizenship” which teaches us to live together.
Need and Importance:
The need and importance of international understanding are as follows:
i. International understanding is needed for ever lasting peace amongst the nations of the world.
ii. It is required to prevent world wars.
iii. It is needed to strengthen democratic principles.
iv. It is needed to develop contacts with other countries.
v. It is needed to promote human welfare.
vi. It is a hope for the backward or undeveloped nations.
14. Essay on the Importance of Education for Human Resource Development:
Human resources are the most important factor in any economic endeavor. In developing countries like India it is more significant in terms of trained and skilled man power. It plays an important role in changing the economic order of the society. While economic development is concerned with physical resources development, education is concerned with human resource development.
National development can be possible through human resource development. So Human Resource Development refers to development of all those factors in the individual which contribute to personal satisfaction, social utility and efficacy.
It refers to both personal abilities and work competence. It is also a process of modernization and enables people to lead a fuller and richer lives. Therefore, education is considered as an instrument of human resource development.
With a view to realizing national aspiration, the physical resources of the country are to be developed by mechanizing agriculture, modernizing industrialisation, adopting a scientific technology, promoting capital formation and investment and providing the essential infrastructure of transport, credit, marketing and exchange facilities.
But the most important factor is that the development of human resources through a properly organised programme of education.
The Kothari Commission (1964) has remarked, “While the development of physical resources is a means to an end, that human resources is an end in itself, and without it, even the adequate development of physical resources is not possible”.
Need and Importance:
The need and importance of human resource development are as follows:
i. Human resources are the most important factor in economic development of developing countries. It is more significant in producing trained and skilled man power.
ii. It is needed for realizing national aspirations. This involves changes in the knowledge, skills, interest and values of the people as a whole.
iii. It is needed for building the modern nations. In this regard Harbinson and Mayers have stated, “The building of modern nations depends upon the development of people and the organisation of human activity”.
iv. For realizing the problems of national development human resource development is needed.
v. Development of human resources through education and training is capable of bringing positive returns to the individual and community resources.
Role of Education:
Education is considered as both producer good and consumer good, as it gives satisfaction to the person who consumes it and as it helps in the production of more goods. All educational endeavors have to be directed towards the development of human resources.
In this connection the report of the Kothari Commission (1964-66) highlights that “One of the major programmes in national reconstruction is the development of our human resources, and in this there can be no limit to the education to be provided”.
Due to the importance of education, any expenditure on education should be regarded as investment. It should be provided to all. The International Commission on the Development of Education has aptly observed; “Education is no longer the privilege of an elite or the concomitant of u particular age; to an increasing extent, it is reaching out to embrace the whole society and the entire life span of the individual”.
So education should be an investment for human resource development. According to National Policy on Education, 1986, “It should now be possible to further intensify the nation-wide effort in Human Resource Development, with Education playing its multi-faceted role”.
From this concept the multi-faceted role of education for human resource development are as follows:
i. The important function of education is to create awareness among the masses and to bring some attitudinal changes among them. For this purpose a minimum levels of educational attainment should be provided.
ii. Secondly the role of education for human resource development is to provide basic skills and knowledge to all those who are engaged in any type of economic activity. For, this purpose different educational programmes like universal elementary education, diversification of secondary education, adult education, non-formal education etc. should be streamlined.
iii. The third important role of education is to develop a highly qualified manpower through research and developmental activities which will enhance the quality not the quantity.
iv. The fourth role of education for human resource development is that it must guarantee some sort of employment or self- employment to the individual.
v. The fifth important role of education is to relate with economic development of the country.
vi. Lastly the role of education is to produce a society with productive capacity which will satisfy the material and non- material wants of the population.
Human resource development is of crucial importance and all educational endeavors are directed towards this issue. Education must over reach the frontiers of mankind and spread out to horizons of eternity. So investment in human capital must be recognized at all levels of national development.
15. Essay on the Problems of Education of Backward Classes with its Measures:
The destiny of a nation is moulded and fashioned through its education and in this the demand for equality in educational opportunity has a strategic importance. In spite of such demand the backward classes like the lower castes, tribes, women and other minority groups in India are deprived of getting educational opportunities.
Though “education for all” has become the demand of all intelligential, but there are some problems of education of backward classes in the emerging Indian society.
Concept of Backward Classes:
The people who are socially disadvantaged, underprivileged, culturally deprived or environmentally handicapped, considered as backward classes. In western countries, the backward children are those who belong to lower social class. But in India, women in general, religious minorities, lower caste people, the tribal are considered as backward people.
These people or children show poor abilities in attention, perception, and thinking, retarded language development, poor motivation for learning, difficulties in behavioural and emotional adjustment etc.
Problems of backwardness:
There are some factors which are responsible for backwardness.
They are as follows:
i. Inadequate child care due to poverty.
ii. Unsuitable housing, joint families and inefficient family management.
iii. Faulty methods of child rearing.
iv. Lack of parental interest in education
v. Inferior economic, social and cultural status.
vi. Belief in old traditions and customs.
vii. Strict parental authority over the children.
viii. Lack of proper aims and methods of education.
ix. Failure of schools to adapt the timing and approach of teaching to the needs of the children,
x. Unsuitable curriculum.
xi. Lack of diversification of courses for the backward children.
Measures Taken for the Backward Classes:
After attainment of Independence and with the constitution of India coming into force, promotion of educational opportunities has become the primary responsibility of the national government.
Since then keen attention has been paid to the following aspects:
(i) Provision of universal primary education:
Provision of universal primary education has been provided for the backward classes in order to make educational facilities compulsory for the age group of 6 to 14 years.
(ii) Education of the weaker section of the community:
The Government of India is now making some provisions to help the weaker section of the community by arranging some social classes with specially designed occupational courses.
(iii) Programme of adult education:
The Government of India has made National Adult Education programme in order to provide education to the illiterate adult including backward classes.
(iv) Provision of non-formal education:
The non-formal education adopted by the Government of India has created a new hope for the education of the backward classes.
(v) Education of women:
The Government is making some programmes for the education of women with special emphasis on the understanding of the role, status, and rights of women in the society and empowering the women in different fields.
(vi) Participation in higher education:
The Government has made certain reservation facilities for the backward classes in the field of higher education both in general as well as vocational or technical courses.
(vii) Removal of social superstition:
Some steps have been taken for removal of social superstition among the backward classes through education.
(viii) Provision of special facilities:
In order to spread education among the backward classes special provisions like free books, mid day meal, free coaching, free studentship, scholarship, stipend, programmes for worker’s education, etc. are being provided by the government.
(ix) Special incentives for teachers:
Special incentive are being provided to the teachers those who will work in backward areas.
In the emerging Indian society, a remarkable attempt should be made in the field of school education, community education, vocational education, higher education and in other types of special education for the backward classes in order to make their lives a healthy, happy and prosperous.