This article throws light upon the top five problems in universalization of primary education. The problems are: 1. Universal Access through Universal Provision of School Facilities 2. Universal Enrolment of Children 3. Universal Retention 4. Universal Achievement 5. Problem of Qualitative Improvement of Education.
Problems in Universalization of Primary Education:
- Universal Access through Universal Provision of School Facilities
- Universal Enrolment of Children
- Universal Retention
- Universal Achievement
- Problem of Qualitative Improvement of Education
Universalization of Primary Education: Problem # 1.
Universal Access through Universal Provision of School Facilities:
It means that elementary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group of 6-14 years in the country and that a school should be within the easy walking distance from the home of the child. It enables the parents to send their children to school.
There are still some backward and remote areas where efforts to open schools are under way. It should, however, be noted that with the growth of population, there is a need of more and more primary schools to be opened.
Universalization of Primary Education: Problem # 2.
Universal Enrolment of Children:
It means that all children in the age group of 6-14 years should be enrolled by the primary schools. The Kothari commission feels that the problem of enrolment in class 1 is of great significance. In order to achieve this end, states have brought into force compulsory primary education Act.
But the problem of universal enrolment in rural areas is more complicated due to following reasons:
(i) Ignorance and illiteracy of parents.
(ii) Lack of coordination between school and local community,
(iii) Indifferent attitude of high officers and school authorities towards the desired enrolment.
(i) Lack of adequate funds
(v) Poverty of Parents
Universalization of Primary Education: Problem # 3.
After the enrolment of the students in a school is over, it is essential to see their progress in successive years. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before completion of a prescribed courses, so that there will be no wastage in education.
Universalization of Primary Education: Problem # 4.
Universal retention is a pre-condition for universal achievement of targets. If a child leaves or withdraws himself from school before completion, it leads to wastage in education which creates another serious problem for achievement of target.
Universalization of Primary Education: Problem # 5.
Problem of Qualitative Improvement of Education:
Universalization of compulsory primary education has failed to achieve the target because the quality of primary education has not been maintained properly.
Following are some of the problems for qualitative improvement:
(i) Defective curriculum at primary level
(ii) Lack of trained teachers.
(iii) Out dated methods of teaching
(iv) Problem concerning ancillary services.
(v) Problem of School building and .school facilities.
(vi) Detective Government Policy.
(vii) Political interference in the school.
(viii) Problem of administration
(ix) Problem of finance
(x) Lack of research work on various problems of primary education