This article throws light upon the top four types of counselling therapy. The types are: 1. Therapy and Counselling 2. Group Counselling 3. Psychodrama as Group Psychotherapy 4. Combined Individual and Group Counselling.
Counselling Therapy: Type # 1. Therapy and Counselling:
Problems of alienation, depersonalization, loneliness and lack of a meaningful and fulfilling existence need counselling for solution. The humanistic and existential therapy believes that people are by nature free and good. But their inherent goodness and psychological health have been inhibited from appearing by internal and external forces.
These therapies attempt to remove the inhibition of the innate drive towards instinctual satisfaction. According to Coleman, these therapies are based on the assumption that we have the freedom to control our own behaviour, that we can reflect upon our problems, make choices and take positive action.
These therapies can be applied on people with problems to eliminate and prevent their criminal behaviour. Client centred or Non-Directive therapy developed by Karl Rogers helps the patient to undo the faulty evaluations and to assess one-self positively there by.
Delinquents and criminals having negative or low positive self concepts can be-helped by the therapist to develop an insight in to the conflicts between his ideal self, the one which he is capable of being, his present self which others feel he is and has acceptance of his actual self Rogerian therapy involves acceptance, recognition and clarification of the feelings of the individual’s comments Shanmugam (1981).
The aim of this counselling is to touch the emotional aspect of the patient i.e. he is encouraged to talk about the deepest emotional feelings. The emotional conflicts which block self actualization can be removed. This is done by emphasizing certain specific statements and expressions of the patients. The therapist helps the client to see his emotional conflict which is all the while troubling him.
The counselor should be warm and responsive and should have complete rapport with the client. He should produce the receptive climate through the process of empathy, where the patient should not hesitate to express anything, however personal and emotional it might be. The non-directive counselling can be used individually to counsel clients for the prevention of crime.
Counselling Therapy: Type # 2. Group Counselling:
Counselling can also be imparted in groups, which is called group counselling., When groups of people have similar problems and they fall within a particular age range, they can be counselled in groups. In group counselling the problems should not be very complicated or acute.
Group counselling is a type of counselling or relationship between the counsellor or client characterized by trust and openness either individually or in a small group. In group counselling few people with similar back ground and similar problems should be involved.
If more number of persons is taken in a group interpersonal contact may be absent which will not help the client. Many psychologists consider counselling as a process of interpersonal interaction and communication.
For effective counselling to occur the counsellor and client must be able to appropriately and accurately send and receive both verbal and non-verbal messages. The aim of group counselling programme is to provide some help and advice to the problematic persons how to deal with and manage their aggression and violence in a realistic manner.
Realistic examples should be given to convince them that the advice given would really work.
They will not believe the counseller unless they have confidence in the counsellor. If some persons are engaged in theft or economic crime, they must be given the advice and clues how to improve their financial condition. They must be made aware of the various ways and means by which a robber can earn and make himself economically self sufficient.
Group counselling is economical. It saves time and cost. The advise by the counsellor is provided in a group. Even people in need and suceptible for economic crimes like theft, robbery, petty crimes can be made aware of various means of income. The options open to improve his conditions should be told him by the counsellor.
Even crime committed or going to be committed because of sexual jealousy can be prevented by counselling. An young man frustrated or rejected in love by his beloved and then contemplating of taking revenge on the girl can be checked by proper counselling. If he is explained the girls stand and the disadvantages, of sexual jealousy, the vindictive youth can change Ills mind and stop taking revenge.
Many crimes take place because of lack of proper guidance and counselling. Youths become wayward and indiscipline because of lack of proper guidance and counselling. Groups may be organised in prisons, children home for counselling.
Counselling Therapy: Type # 3. Psychodrama as Group Psychotherapy:
Psychodrama is group psychotherapy and can also be used for the purpose of group counselling. Originated by Jacob Moreno, Psychodrama aims at exploring the emotional problems, interpersonal relationship, personality make up, conflicts and emotional problems of the client. It is based on the role playing technique.
The individuals express their complexes, suppressed and repressed urges, aggression and violence through the character they play. Selection of a role for a particular individual which may have some special significance for him is of great importance. It is not wise to give any role of the drama to anybody. Even the delinquent, criminal or susceptible criminal may be free to select his own role.
The therapist or the counsellor is the director of the drama. He must actively participate in the drama and encourage the participants to freely play their role. The director must not force his values on the actors. He must have the ability to lead the various characters in the right direction.
Psychodrama frees the patient from anxieties, worries, hostilities and traumatic experiences. The blocked, suppressed and repressed unconscious feeling’s are expressed while acting a role showing him insight in to his own problems.
A delinquent or one tending towards delinquency because of some repressed hostility may be prevented from committing any crime in future if his repressed hostility or unacceptable unconscious urges are expressed through a character.
The actor projects his repressed urges on the character he plays, there by releasing his blocked urges. The basic purpose of psychodrama is to help the patient to achieve emotional cathersis.
In group counselling technique the problems of all the clients should he same so that it would be easy for counsellor to concentrate on a |particular issue and all the participants unconsciously or consciously are influenced by the advice of the counsellor.
It is often seen that many people face problems in life due to indecisiveness. This creates conflict when one has to select between two equally important goals, there is also conflict which leads to depression, aggression and even violence.
But when someone is there to solve the conflict by advising him what decision he has to take, his conflict is resolved and he spends a healthy and normal life. Therefore, it is always desirable to go for counselling when there is some psychological, social, economic or personal problem. Keeping other factors constant, anyone of these problems or combination of a couple of these problems may lead to anti-social behaviour.
Many criminals commit crimes as a revolt to social norms and restrictions. So they develop a hatred towards the existing society the outcome of which is crime and criminal activities. Depending upon the situation and needs individual and group counselling should be selected. In group counselling more people should not been taken in a group. The best size is 8 to 10. The clients must attend all the group sessions.
Counselling Therapy: Type # 4. Combined Individual and Group Counselling:
In combined individual and group counselling clients are seen individually by the counsellor and also take part in group sessions. The counsellor in such situation is usually the same person. Attendance of both individual and group sessions is important. Failure to attend would mean perhaps that the client does not want to co-operate or take the counselling because of some difficulties.
Combined and individual counselling is an ongoing plan in which the group experience interacts meaningfully with the individual counselling experiences. Combined individual and group counselling provides a reciprocal feedback that helps to form an integrated therapeutic experience.
In a group counselling contact with other criminals or members is possible and because of interaction the clients can develop transferential reactions. It is generally found that the drop-out rate in the combined therapy is lower than that of group counselling alone.
In many cases combined counselling appears to bring problems to the surface and to resolve them more quickly than may be possible with either method alone. Legal counselling should also be provided to the offenders and criminals for their legal profession.